Table of Contents



    (d. 1622), prime minister of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and father of the emperor’s wife, Nūr Jahān. See ḠĪĀṮ BEG.


    Priscilla Soucek

    a painter (naqqāš) active in Herat ca. 1419-30, where he was in the employ of the Timurid Bāysonḡor b. Šāhroḵ.


    Gregory Maxwell Bruce

    (1785-1852), MOḤAMMAD, Persian lexicographer, literary scholar, philologist, poet, and teacher.

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    Lisa Golombek

    master architect in Khorasan during the reign of the Timurid Šāhroḵ (1405-47).





    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of the Qazvīn region.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or GMS; a series of publications, which has continued for almost a century, mainly, but not exclusively, dedicated to editions and translations of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish texts.


    Michael Rogers

    (1737-1794), author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 1776-88). Relations of Persia and the later steppe nomads with the East Roman/Byzantine empire are an essential component of Gibbon’s celebrated history.


    Multiple Authors

    various aspects of gift giving in Persia.

  • GIFT GIVING i. Introduction


    The following article constitutes a preliminary attempt at studying various aspects of gift giving in a chronological and historical framework, from the pre-Islamic era to the early modern period.

  • GIFT GIVING ii. In Pre-Islamic Persia


    Giving and receiving gifts appears to have assumed a particular significance and a specific manner in the ancient Near East, and especially in ancient Iran.

  • GIFT GIVING iii. In The Medieval Period


    See Supplement.


  • GIFT GIVING iv. In The Safavid Period

    Rudi P. Matthee

    Virtually all available information on the practice of gift giving in pre-modern Persia is limited to the political elite; It is clear, though, that offering gifts was a conspicuous part of traditional social and political life in Persia.

  • GIFT GIVING v. In the Qajar Period

    Willem Floor

    This habit of gift giving was part of the fabric of Persian life and held for all classes and ranks or social and ethnic groups.



    See GĪLĀN x. Languages


    Multiple Authors

    or Ḡelān; province at the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea. 


    Marcel Bazin

    Gīlān includes the northwestern end of the Alborz chain and the western part of the Caspian lowlands of Persia. The mountainous belt is cut through by the deep transversal valley of the Safīdrūd between Manjīl and Emāmzāda Hāšem near Rašt. 

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  • GĪLĀN ii. Population

    Habibollah Zanjani

    The first general census was carried out in 1956 and the sixth in 1996. The geographical boundaries and area have varied from one census to another; at the present time it is 14,819 square kilometers and includes 99 districts, 30 counties and 12 townships. In 1996, there were 2,700 settlements and 35 cities.

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  • GĪLĀN iii. Archeology

    Ezat O. Negahban

    The archeology of Gīlān, particularly in the pre-Islamic period, is usually studied in the wider context of the entire south Caspian region, including Mazandarān and Gorgān. Articles on three important locations, Marlik Tepe, Amlaš, and Deylamān, illustrate the perennial difficulties faced by archeological research in Persia.

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  • GĪLĀN iv. History in the Early Islamic Period

    Wilferd Madelung

    The Gelae (Gilites) seem to have entered the region south of the Caspian coast and west of the Amardos River (later Safīdrūd) in the second or first century B.C.E.

  • GĪLĀN v. History under the Safavids

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    Gīlān has traditionally been considered by its local population as a land of two distinct regions divided by the course of Safīdrūd River.

  • GĪLĀN vi. History in the 18th century

    EIr and Reza Rezazadeh Langaroudi

    The rapid decline of the Safavids in the first decades of the 18th century, leading to their ultimate demise in 1722, created a general state of chaos in the country.

  • GĪLĀN vii. History in the 19th century

    EIr and Reza Rezazadeh Langaroudi

    Sealed off by mountains from the rest of the country, political and social life in Gīlān had always been highly influenced, if not determined, by its geographical position. The history of 19th-century Gīlān began with the continuation of the binary division of Bīa-pas and Bīa-pīš and the rule of local families.

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  • GILĀN viiia. In the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11

    Pezhmann Dailami

    Two classes featured prominently in Gilān as the driving forces of the revolution, and the alliance of these two, the peasantry and the urban petty-bourgeoisie of artisans, shopkeepers, and petty traders, was the hallmark of a radical movement on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea.

  • GĪLĀN ix. Monuments

    Manouchehr Sotoudeh

    Most buildings of historical interest in Gilān have been repeatedly repaired and rebuilt. Some have clear records of their history, but most lack reliable, primary documents, and one has to rely on a variety of indirect evidence, such as the dates engraved on entrance doors or tombstones to reconstruct part of the past of a given edifice.

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    Donald Stilo

    In Gīlān there are three major Iranian language groups, namely Gīlakī, Rūdbārī, and Ṭālešī, and pockets of two other groups, Tātī and Kurdish. The non-Iranian languages include Azeri Turkish and some speakers of Gypsy (Romany, of Indic origin).

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  • GILĀN xi. Irrigation

    Christian Bromberger

    In the rice-growing regions of the Caspian hinterland, water requirements are considerable and irrigation requires careful organization. It is estimated that one hectare of rice, on average,  requires 12,400 cubic meters of water. To meet this demand various techniques are used.

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  • GILĀN xii. Rural Housing

    Christian Bromberger

    In the north of the province, these minimal constructions (wells and rice barns) are traditionally complemented by a covered area for rice threshing, and, in Rašt district, by a separate building for drying paddy, known as a dudḵāna, garmḵāna, or bujḵāna. In the silkworm growing areas, the silkworm nursery occupies a place of honor.

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  • GILĀN xiii. Kinship and Marriage

    Christian Bromberger

    According to a 1991 sample survey, in Iran, the plain of Gilān has the lowest proportion of marriages whether with paternal or maternal cousins or with a near or distant (non-consanguineous) relation. 

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  • GILĀN xiv. Ethnic Groups

    Christian Bromberger

    Each group living in the province is characterized by one or several specific production activities, so that an ethnonym refers as much to territorial, linguistic, and cultural roots as to any dominant professional specialization.

  • GILĀN xv. Popular and Literary Perceptions of Identity

    Christian Bromberger

    In Afghanistan, Uzbeks are called “noodle eaters” by their neighbors and in Persia the Arabs from Khuzestan are stigmatized as susmārḵor “lizard eaters”.


    Christian Bromberger

    Even today, old women believe that cutting down an āzād tree is an act of sacrilege. Whether they are themselves objects of worship or simply grow near the tombs of saints, near cemeteries or inside mosques, these trees are places of devotion, each one dedicated to a specific type of wish (naẕr).

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  • GILAN xvii. Gender Relations

    Christian Bromberger

    In Gilan roles and tasks are distributed according to a more flexible pattern: to a large extent, women take an important part in agricultural work; in their homes, the line between male and female spaces is blurred; craftwork, industrial, and commercial activities are not the exclusive prerogative of men in this region.

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  • GILAN xviii. Rural Production Techniques

    Christian Bromberger

    Chaff produces a great amount of smoke and was once used to punish miscreants or disobedient children who were locked up in the dud otāḡ (literally “smoke room,” where sheaves of rice were dried and cocoons stifled). This punishment was called fal-a dud (“the smoke from the rice chaff”).

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  • GILĀN xix. Landholding and Social Stratification

    Christian Bromberger

    Prior to the Land Reform of 1962 that began the process of land redistribution, the dominant production system in Gilān, as in the majority of Persianprovinces, was of a feudal nature.

  • GILĀN xx. Handicrafts

    Christian Bromberger

    Gilān was a region that produced raw materials (including silk), to which one came for supplies, much more than a region where finished products were made; and the area long remained rural, with only minor importance accorded to towns housing professionals, workshops, and master craftsmen.

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  • GILĀN xxi. Cooking

    Christian Bromberger

    Eating habits and culinary preparations in Gilān have several distinct characteristics. In this rice-producing region, the consumption of rice is much higher than elsewhere in Persia. Garden vegetables and kitchen herbs (sabzi) generally appear in the makeup of most dishes and give the regional cuisine the green touch that is its hallmark.

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    Nassereddin Parvin

    title of four newspapers published in Rašt.


    Ina Baghdiantz McCabe

    a compendium of reports collated as a journal by Petros di Sarkis Gilanentz (Gilanencʿ), which constitutes an important source for the history of events in Transcaucasia and Persia during the period March 1722 to August 1723, notably the Afghan invasion and siege of Isfahan.






    See CHERRY.


    John R. Perry

    (1759-1841), physician, Indologist, and teacher of Persian and Urdu who pioneered the Western study and teaching of modern Indian languages in British India.

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    M. Jamil Hanifi

    or ḠALZĪ, one of three major Pashtun/Paxtun tribal confederations in Afghanistan.


    Erich Kettenhofen

    present-day Jendīres, a town in the ancient region of Cyrrhestike in Syria.


    Colin MacKinnon

    or Giāni; a Persian dialect of the Northern Lor type, spoken in the village of Giān/Giō, 12 km west of the city of Nehāvand.



    b. Jani Beg. See KISTĀN QARĀ b. Jani Beg.


    Richard M. Eaton

    or Gēsu-darāz (b. Delhi, 1321-d. Gulbarga, 1422), the popular title of Sayyed MOḤAMMAD b. Yusof Ḥosayni, the most important transmitter of Sufi traditions from North India to the Deccan plateau.

  • GITI

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a leftist daily paper published from 24 June 1943 to December 1943 by Ḵalil Enqelāb Āḏar as the official organ of the Workers union.

  • Giv


    Giv. See Gēv.


    Farhang Mehr

    In 1953, Giv created the Rostam Giv Charitable Foundation for the promotion of the education and welfare of the Zoroastrian community. In the same year, he encouraged his brother’s heirs to endow an elementary school for girls in Tehran. He also built sixty low-rent houses, equipped with modern amenities, for needy Zoroastrians.

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