Table of Contents

  • GONBAD-E QĀBUS

    E. Ehlers, M. Momeni, and EIr, Habib-Allāh Zanjāni, Sheila S. Blair

    (now referred to officially as Gonbad-e Kāvus) is the administrative center of the sub-province (šahrestān) of the same name and the urban center of the Turkman tribal area in northern Persia. It is named after its major monument, a tall tower that marks the grave of the Ziyarid ruler Qābus b. Vošmgir (r. 978-1012).

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  • GONBAD-E SORḴ

    Marcus Milwright

    the “Red Tomb,” completed on 4 March 1148, the earliest of five medieval mausolea located in Marāḡa in Azerbaijan. It combines elements of the two common forms of Islamic Iranian monumental tomb, the domed cube, and the conically-roofed circular or polygonal tower. 

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  • GONDĒŠĀPUR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi, Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    in the Sasanian epoch, Gondēšāpur was one of the four major cities of Ḵuzestān, the other three being Karḵa, Susa, and Šuštar. The extensive irrigation systems developed there by the early Sasanians were probably aimed at supplying a large population.

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  • GONDOPHARES

    A. D. H. Bivar

    Indo-Parthian king (20-46 C.E.) in Drangiana, Arachosia, and especially in the Punjab.

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  • GŌR

    Cross-Reference

    the historical name for present-day Firuzābād in Fārs. See ARDAŠIR ḴORRA; FIRUZĀBĀD.

  • GŌRĀN

    Cross-Reference

    a tribe in Kurdistan. See GURĀN.

  • GORĀN, ʿABD-ALLĀH SOLAYMĀN

    Keith Hitchins

    (1904-62), the leading Kurdish poet of the twentieth century.

  • GORĀZ

    Cross-Reference

    See BOAR.

  • GORBA

    Cross-Reference

    See CAT I; CAT II.

  • ḠŌRBAND

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    or ḠURBAND; a major valley of Kōhestān/Kuhestān and a sub-province (woloswāli) of Parvān province in the southern foothills of the Hindu Kush massif, located approximately 50 miles north of Kabul.

  • ḠORBATI

    Cross-Reference

    See GYPSY.

  • GORDĀFARID

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    daughter of Gaždaham, the castellan of Dež-e Sapid, the Iranian fortress on the frontier with Turān.

  • GORDIA

    Cross-Reference

    a female character in the Shah-nama. See BAHRĀM (2) vii. Bahrām VI Čōbīn.

  • GORDIANUS III

    Cross-Reference

    Roman emperor. See SHAPUR I.

  • GORDON, THOMAS EDWARD

    Rose L. Greaves

    , General Sir (1832–1914), British intelligence officer, director of the Imperial Bank of Persia (Bānk-e šāhi-e Irān) from 1893 to 1914, author, and apparently the first person to use the term Middle East, which meant particularly Persia and Afghanistan.

  • GORDUENE

    Cross-Reference

    See KORDUK.

  • GORG

    Cross-Reference

    See WOLF.

  • GORGĀN

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography, ii. Dašt-e Gorgān, iii. Population, iv. Archeology, v. Pre-Islamic history, vi. History from the rise of Islam to the beginning of the Safavid Period, vii. To the end of the Pahlavi era.

  • GORGĀN i. Geography

    Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni

    the ancient Hyrcania, an important Persian province at the southeast corner of the Caspian sea.

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  • GORGĀN ii. Dašt-e Gorgān

    Eckart Ehlers

    the designation of a steppe-region of approximately 10,000 km2 near the southeastern edge of the Caspian Sea, stretching for almost 200 km east-west between Morāva Tappa and the coast of the Caspian Sea near Gomišān.

  • GORGĀN iii. Population

    Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni

    Over the past four decades, the population of Golestān Province as a whole has increased 4.5 times, 8.5 times in the urban and 3.3 times in the rural areas. In the same period, the number of its cities has increased from 5 to 16.

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  • GORGĀN BAY

    Cross-Reference

    See ASTARĀBĀD BAY.

  • GORGĀN iv. Archeology

    Muhammad Yusof Kiani

    The Greek historian Arrian, recording Alexander’s expedition to the East, speaks of Alexander’s march to the city of Zadracarta, the largest town in the region and the capital of Hyrcania, where the royal palace was situated.

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  • GORGĀN v. Pre-Islamic history

    A. D. H. Bivar

    The area comprises two distinct climatic zones: the rainforest of the Alborz northern slopes and the Gorgān plain, well-watered and fertile close to the mountains but passing into increasingly desert steppe as the distance from the foothills increases.

  • GORGĀN vi. History From The Rise Of Islam To The Beginning Of The Safavid Period

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    formed in Sasanian and pre-modern Islamic times a transitional zone, a corridor, between the subtropical habitat and climate of Māzandarān to its west, and the arid steppes of Dehestān (q.v.) and, beyond them, the Qara Qum Desert to its northwest.

  • GORGĀN vii. History from the Safavids to the end of the Pahlavi era

    Jawād Neyestāni and EIr

    Two characteristics dominated the history of Gorgān in the period between the 16th and early 19th centuries: incessant tribal unrest and power politics. These features reflected the rather particular tribal structure and the geopolitical situation of this region.

  • GORGANAJ

    Cross-Reference

    See CHORASMIA.

  • GORGĀNI DIALECT

    Cross-Reference

    See MĀZANDARĀNI.

  • GORGĀNI, ABU’L-HAYṮAM AḤMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-HAYṮAM GORGĀNI.

  • GORGĀNI, FAḴR-AL-DIN ASʿAD

    Julie Scott Meisami

    (fl. ca. 1050), poet, best known for his verse romance Vis o Rāmin, completed in 1055 or shortly thereafter and dedicated to the Saljuq governor of Isfahan, the ʿAmid Abu’l-Fatḥ Moẓaffar b. Moḥammad.

  • GORGIJANIDZE, PARSADAN

    Jemshid Giunashvili

    (1626-1696), a Georgian literary figure and historian who served in the Safavid administration as deputy governor of Isfahan and royal chamberlain.

  • GORGIN

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of Milād, one of the heroes of the reigns of Kay Kāvus and Kay Ḵosrow and the head of the Milād family.

  • GORGIN KHAN

    Rudi Matthee

    also known as Giorgio XI and Šāhnavāz Khan II; Georgian prince (d. 1709), who was alternately ruler of Georgia and holder of high positions in the Safavid administration and military.

  • GORGIN, IRAJ

    Mandana Zandian

    (1935-2012), radio and television broadcaster, journalist, and the founder of several Persian radio and television networks, whose life and career unfolded in two distinct sociopolitical milieus, in Iran in the two decades that culminated in the Revolution of 1979 and in exile over the subsequent three decades of his life.

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  • GORJESTĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See GEORGIA.

  • GORUH-E FARHANGI-E HADAF

    Cross-Reference

    See HADAF EDUCATIONAL GROUP.

  • GORUH-E FARHANGI-E ḴᵛĀRAZMI

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴᵛĀRAZMI SCHOOLS.

  • GORZ

    Jalil Doostkhah

    or gorza, gorz-e gāvsār/sar, lit. "ox-headed club/mace,"  a weapon often mentioned and variously described in Iranian myths and epic. In classical Persian texts, particularly in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma, it is characterized as the decisive weapon of choice in fateful battles.

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  • GORZEVĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town in the medieval Islamic region of Guzgān in northern Afghanistan.

  • GŌŠ YAŠT

    W. W. Malandra

    the title of the ninth Yašt of the Avesta, also known as Drwāsp Yašt, after the goddess Druuāspā (see DRVĀSPĀ) to whom, in fact, it is dedicated.

  • GŌSĀN

    Mary Boyce

    a Parthian word of unknown derivation for “poet-musician, minstrel.”

  • GOŠASB BĀNU

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    or Bānu Gošasb; entitled savār (knight), Rostam’s daughter and the wife of Gēv.

  • GŌSFAND

    Cross-Reference

    See GUSFAND.

  • ḠOSL

    Cross-Reference

    See CLEANSING.

  • GOŠNASP ASPĀD

    Cross-Reference

    Sasanian military commander. See ḴOSROW II.

  • GŌSPAND

    Cross-Reference

    See  CATTLE.

  • GOSPEL

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLE.

  • GOSTAHAM

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    name of two heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

  • GOŠTĀSP

    A. Shapur Shabazi

    Kayanian king of Iranian traditional history and patron of Zoroaster.

  • GŌŠURUN

    William W. Malandra

    the Pahlavi name for the soul of the Sole-created Bull.