Table of Contents

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD

    Multiple Authors

    b. Moḥammad Ṭūsī (1058-1111), one of the greatest systematic Persian thinkers of medieval Islam and a prolific Sunni author on the religious sciences (Islamic law, philosophy, theology, and mysticism) in Saljuq times. Overview of entry: i. Biography, ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat, iv. Minor Persian works, v. As a Faqīh, vi. Ḡazālī and Theology, vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic Thought.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD i

    Gerhard BÖWERING

    (variant name Ḡazzālī; Med. Latin form, Algazel; honorific title, Ḥojjat-al-Eslām"The Proof of Islam”), born at Ṭūs in Khorasan in 450/1058 and grew up as an orphan together with his younger brother Aḥmad Ḡazālī (d. 520/1126; q.v.).

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, ii, iii

    W. Montgomery Watt

    ii. The Eḥyāʾ ʿolum al-dīn, iii. The Kīmīā-ye saʿādat. 

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, iv

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    iv. Minor Persian works.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, v

    Wael B. Hallaq

    v. As a Faqīh.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vi

    Michael E. Marmura

    vi. Ḡazālī and Theology.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, ABŪ ḤĀMED MOḤAMMAD, vii, viii

    Wilferd Madelung

    vii. Ḡazālī and the Bāṭenīs, viii. Impact on Islamic thought.

  • ḠAZĀLĪ, MAJD-AL-DĪN Abu’l-Fotūḥ AḤMAD

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    b. Moḥammad b. Aḥmad (ca. 1061-1126), outstanding mystic, writer, and eloquent preacher.

  • ḠĀZĀN KHAN, MAḤMŪD

    R. Amitai-Preiss

    (1271-1304), oldest son of Arḡūn Khan and his eventual successor as the seventh Il-khanid ruler of Persia (r. 1295-1304).

  • ḠĀZĀN-NĀMA

    Charles Melville

    a verse chronicle of the reign of the Il-khan Ḡāzān Khan (1295-1304), by Ḵᵛāja Nūr-al-Dīn b. Šams-al-Dīn Moḥammad Aždarī.

  • ḠAŻĀYERĪ RĀZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠAŻĀʾERĪ RĀZĪ.

  • GAŽDAHAM

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    an Iranian hero of Dež-e Safīd, a fortress near the border seperating Iran from Tūrān, during the reigns of the Kayanid kings Nōḏar and Kay Kāvūs.

  • GAZELLE

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀHŪ, CHINKARA.

  • GAZĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ISFAHAN xxii.

  • GAZMA

    Cross-Reference

    See CITIES.

  • ḠAZNAVĪ, ABŪ RAJĀʾ

    EIr

    b. Masʿūd III, a poet at the court of the Ghaznavid sultan Bahrāmšāh (r. ca. 1117-1157).

  • ḠAZNĪ

    Xavier de Planhol, Roberta Giunta

    or Ḡazna, Ḡaznīn; province and city in southeastern Afghanistan, the latter situated 136 km south of Kabul at an altitude of about 2,200 meters. The earliest known monuments of Ḡaznī belong to the Ghaznavid period (366-583/977-1187), the best representative of which are the two minarets standing east of the citadel, close to two large mounds resembling mosques.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GAZOPHYLACIUM LINGUAE PERSICAE

    Cross-Reference

    See DICTIONARIES iii.

  • GĀZORGĀH

    Lisa Golombek

    a village approximately 2.5 miles northeast of the city of Herat in present-day northwestern Afghanistan at 34°22′ N and 62°14′ E, situated at an elevation of 4,100 feet.

  • GĀZORGĀHĪ, MĪR KAMĀL-AL-DĪN ḤOSAYN

    Shiro Ando

    b. Šeḥāb-al-Dīn Esmāʿīl Ṭabasī (b. 1469/70), a Timurid ṣadr and author of a collection of biographies of Sufis known as the Majāles al-ʿoššāq.

  • GEBER

    Cross-Reference

    See GABR, MAJŪS.

  • GEDROSIA

    Willem J. Vogelsang

    or Kedrosia; a place-name known only from Classical sources.

  • GEIGER, BERNHARD

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    Geiger studied Hebrew and Arabic before being persuaded by Leopold von Schroeder to turn to Indian and Iranian studies. Among his teachers in Vienna, Bonn, Prague, Göttingen, and Heidelberg were the Indologists Leopold von Schroeder, Moriz Winternitz, and Franz Kielhorn and the Iranists Friedrich Carl Andreas (q.v.) and Jacob Wackernagel.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEIGER, WILHELM

    Bernfried Schlerath

    Geiger’s first publication (1877) was an edited version and annotated translation of the Pahlavi version of the first chapter of the Vidēvdād, the first part of which was his doctoral thesis. Later in 1880 he published a translation with commentary of the third chapter.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GĒL

    Cross-Reference

    tribes in the Arsacid and Sasanian periods. See GĪLĀN.

  • GELDNER, KARL FRIEDRICH

    Bernfried Schlerath

    Geldner’s first significant work appeared in 1874 while he was still a student, in the form of an answer to a prize essay question posed by the Philosophical Faculty at Tübingen. The essay was expanded and published in 1877 under the title Über die Metrik des jüngeren Avesta.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GELĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See CARPETS.

  • GELPKE, RUDOLF

    HERMANN LANDOLT

    Rudolf Gelpke was educated at the universities of Basel, Zürich, and Berlin. He became a noted writer in his early twenties, and his novel Holger und Mirjam was published in Zürich in 1951. His interests in the Islamic world began after a visit to Tunisia in 1952.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GELŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See GAYŌMART.

  • GEMCUTTING

    Parviz Mohebbi

    (Pers. ḥakkākī), the process of shaping and polishing faceted gemstones. The first-known reference in Persian to gem cutting is found in an anonymous treatise on jewelry, Jowhar-nāma-ye neẓāmī, written in 1195-96 under the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh. According to the sources, gem cutting and polishing were both done by the same machine—the grinding wheel or čarḵ-e ḥakkākī.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GENÇOSMAN, MEHMED NURÎ

    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Ağın district of Elazığ, 1897; d. Istanbul, 1976), Turkish poet and translator of Persian works.

  • GENDARMERIE

    Stephanie Cronin

    the first modern highway patrol and rural police force in Persia. The Government Gendarmerie (Žāndārmerī-e dawlatī) was established in 1910 by the second Majles and proved the most enduring in a series of official projects for the modernization of the armed forces under the leadership of foreign officers.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GENDER RELATIONS i

    Farzaneh Milani

    Gender relations in Persia.  Overview of article: i. In Modern Persia, ii. In the Islamic Republic.

  • GENDER RELATIONS ii

    Hammed Shahidan

    ii. In the Islamic Republic.

  • GENGHIS KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ČENGĪZ KHAN.

  • GENIE

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    name of a category of supernatural beings believed to have been created from smokeless fire and to be living invisibly side-by-side the visible creation.

  • GENOA

    Michele Bernardini

    an important port city in Liguria, in northwestern Italy, which during the Middle Ages played a significant role between Europe and the East, including Persia. Genoa was sacked by Muslim raiders from North Africa in 935 but became an economic and commercial power during the First Crusade (1096-1101).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEOGRAPHY

    Multiple Authors

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. Overview of the entry: i. Evolution of geographical knowledge, ii. Human geography, iii. Political geography, iv. Cartography of Persia.

  • GEOGRAPHY i. Evolution of geographical knowledge

    Xavier de Planhol

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. The concept of Iran and ancient Iranian geography (Justi; Spiegel, I, pp. 188-243 and especially pp. 210-12; Herzfeld, pp. 671-720; Gnoli, 1980, 1989).

  • GEOGRAPHY ii. Human geography

    Xavier de Planhol

    The primordial component of the land of Iran, since it was a sedentary world as opposed to the nomadic Tūrān, must have been situated above the level of the internal steppes and deserts, in the highland river valleys having both arable alluvial soils and plenty of water from the rainfall in the mountains.

  • GEOGRAPHY iii. Political Geography

    Xavier de Planhol

    The territory of Tajikistan corresponds with the predominantly Iranian ethnic sector of the mountainous south-eastern periphery of the Bukhara emirate, which came under Russian influence at the end of the 19th century. Its southern and eastern borders with Afghanistan and China are the results of international treaties.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEOGRAPHY iv. Cartography of Persia

    CYRUS ALAI

    The world’s oldest known topographical map is a Babylonian clay tablet (ca. 2300 B.C.E.) found at Nuzi in northeastern Iraq. It is a relatively advanced picture map, showing two ranges of hills, as seen from the side, and the rivers they flank, by a series of parallel lines. The site covered by this map may have lain between the Zagros mountains and the hills running through Kirkuk.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEOLOGY

    Eckart Ehlers

    This article is concerned with those aspects of the geology of Persia that are of immediate economic and cultural significance for the country and its inhabitants, primarily (1) geological structure and orohydrographic differentiation of Persia, (2) geology and natural hazards, and (3) geology and natural resources.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEOPOTHROS

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌDARZ.

  • GEORGIA

    Multiple Authors

    (Pers. Gorjestān; Ar. al-Korj). This series of entries covers Georgia and its relations with Iran.

  • GEORGIA i. The land and the people

    Keith Hitchins

    At a crossroads of great empires to the east, west, and north throughout their history, the Georgians absorbed and adapted elements from the cultures of diverse peoples, while at the same time defending their political and cultural independence against all comers. The Georgians are today distinguished by a unique cultural heritage.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEORGIA ii. History of Iranian-Georgian Relations

    Keith Hitchins

    Between the Achaemenid era and the beginning of the 19th century, Persia played a significant and at times decisive role in the history of the Georgian people. The Persian presence helped to shape political institutions, modified social structure and land holding, and enriched literature and culture. Persians also acted as a counterweight to other powerful forces in the region.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEORGIA iii. Iranian elements in Georgian art and archeology

    Gocha R. Tsetskhladze

    Ancient Georgian tribes had close cultural contacts with Near Eastern civilizations from the 18th century BCE. Iranian elements appeared from the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C.E., as they did in the art of the entire Caucasian region.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEORGIA iv. Literary contacts with Persia

    Aleksandre Gvakharia

    The tribes of Georgia had a well-established and vast literary tradition and folklore long before the Christian era. None of the pre-Christian Georgian literary works have survived, however. Christianity became established in Georgia as an official religion at the beginning of the 4th century, and in the 5th century the first surviving literary work was created.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GEORGIA v. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS WITH IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    Thea Chkeidze

    Due to many centuries of close contacts between Georgia and Persia, a large number of Iranian loanwords came into the Georgian language.