(1864-1930), German historian and orientalist, specialist in historical geography. His monumental Ērānšahr (1901) is still an authoritative work and probably his most important. His books are full of profound and nearly inexhaustible erudition, revealing that their author was a learned historian, philologist, geographer, and ethnologist.
Prior to the 18th century, Iran and Russia treated each other as equal in their sporadic trade and diplomatic contacts. The fragmentation of Iran during the 18th century encouraged Russian aspirations to establish its domination in the Caucasus and the Caspian.
LATEST IN PRINT
Fascicle 2 of Volume XVI
The most recent fascicle in the print edition of Encyclopædia Iranica appeared during the second quarter of 2013. This fascicle continues the development of letter “K” topics. It begins with the ancient KASSITES and ends with the beginning of titles with initial Ke-. Especially notable in this fascicle is the comprehensive survey of the Kayanid dynasty in the traditional history of Iran, as recorded in our sources both pre-Islamic and Islamic. This entry by Prof. P. O. Skjærvø, under the title KAYĀNIĀN, is now available at this website, along with all other entries in the fascicle.
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2016 Busa Prize
The staff of Encyclopædia Iranica are happy to join in congratulating the recipient of this year's Busa Prize —Helen Agüera, who in 2014 retired from her longtime position as senior program officer in the Division of Preservation and Access at the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). The award, given by the Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations (ADHO), honors lifetime achievement in the application of technology to humanities research (see the ADHO announcement). NEH assistance to Encyclopædia Iranica began in 1979, and we remain ever grateful to Helen Agüera for her critiques and advice to this project through the years. We applaud this recognition of her aid to all the worthy projects that she has helped bring to fruition.
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