In the rice-growing regions of the Caspian hinterland, water requirements are considerable and irrigation requires careful organization. It is estimated that one hectare of rice, on average, requires 12,400 cubic meters of water. To meet this demand various techniques are used, depending on the micro climate of the area and the resources available.
(lit. "making knot”), a form of geometric interlaced strapwork ornament that is commonly found in architecture and the minor arts throughout the Islamic world. In Persian Islamic architecture gereh-sāzī designs exist in a variety of media, particularly cut brickwork (bannāʾī), stucco, and cut tilework (mosaic faïence).
Fascicle 2 of Volume XVI
The most recent fascicle in the print edition of Encyclopædia Iranica appeared during the second quarter of 2013. This fascicle continues the development of letter “K” topics. It begins with the ancient KASSITES and ends with the beginning of titles with initial Ke-. Especially notable in this fascicle is the comprehensive survey of the Kayanid dynasty in the traditional history of Iran, as recorded in our sources both pre-Islamic and Islamic. This entry by Prof. P. O. Skjærvø, under the title KAYĀNIĀN, is now available at this website, along with all other entries in the fascicle.
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New Online Entries
by Steven C. Anderson
Within Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, lizards inhabit a wide variety of biotopes, from Caspian forest habitats to active sand dunes. Although most species are diurnal, species of geckos comprise a nighttime fauna in many habitats. Lizards have many morphological adaptations that suit them to the substrates they inhabit, from specialized toe-pads in vertical rock-face dwellers to fringed-toes in loose-sand runners. Some burrowers have lost digits and entire limbs.
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