Chinese Turkestan refers to Xinjiang (Sinkiang), the Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China. Other names have often been applied to this part of Central Asia: Serindia (English and French); Ost-Turkestan, Chinesische Ost-Turkestan, Mittelasien (German); Vostochnyĭ Turkestan (Russian). Some of these terms are purely geographical (Mittelasien), some historical (Serindia), and others ethno-cultural (Turkestan).
Revival and reconstruction of the Iranian identity was unparalleled among the other ancient cultural areas that were incorporated into the Islamic world. Thus, while Syria and Egypt lost their languages under the hegemony of Arabic, Iran survived as the main cultural area in the emerging Islamic empire that maintained its distinct linguistic and cultural identity.
Fascicle 2 of Volume XVI
The most recent fascicle in the print edition of Encyclopædia Iranica appeared during the second quarter of 2013. This fascicle continues the development of letter “K” topics. It begins with the ancient KASSITES and ends with the beginning of titles with initial Ke-. Especially notable in this fascicle is the comprehensive survey of the Kayanid dynasty in the traditional history of Iran, as recorded in our sources both pre-Islamic and Islamic. This entry by Prof. P. O. Skjærvø, under the title KAYĀNIĀN, is now available at this website, along with all other entries in the fascicle.
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an engagement during the mid-630s CE in which Arab Muslim warriors overcame a larger Sasanian army and paved the way for their subsequent conquest of Iran. The battle took place at a small settlement on the frontier of Sasanian Iraq. Qādesiya was likely a garrison town in the network of Sasanian fortifications known as the “Wall of the Arabs” or as “Šāpur’s trench”.
According to the Islamic sources, shortly after the victory at Yarmuk in Syria, the caliph ʿOmar b. Ḵaṭṭāb (r. 634-644) turned his attentions to Iraq, dispatching a sizeable army under Saʿd b. Abi Waqqāṣ, which swelled with the addition of local irregulars. The Iranian government sent the powerful nobleman and military commander, Rostam b. Farroḵ-Hormozd, at the head of a large host to crush the invasion. The two forces waited several months at Qādesiya before engaging each other.
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