Its etymology is obscure: the term appears in Middle Persian only in the compound argbed a military rank and, though evidently in use, does not occur frequently in New Persian before the early 17th century. It is used also by Persian writers of Central Asia and northern India to designate the fortress of a city.
a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. Enamel was associated with lapidary, glassworking, and goldmithing crafts and was probably used primarily in place of precious stones before the 17th century.
LATEST IN PRINT
Fascicle 2 of Volume XVI
The most recent fascicle in the print edition of Encyclopædia Iranica appeared during the second quarter of 2013. This fascicle continues the development of letter “K” topics. It begins with the ancient KASSITES and ends with the beginning of titles with initial Ke-. Especially notable in this fascicle is the comprehensive survey of the Kayanid dynasty in the traditional history of Iran, as recorded in our sources both pre-Islamic and Islamic. This entry by Prof. P. O. Skjærvø, under the title KAYĀNIĀN, is now available at this website, along with all other entries in the fascicle.
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For a list of the Fascicle XVI/2 entry titles and authors, select the button below.
Christoph Werner, Vaqf en Iran. Aspects culturels, religieux et sociaux, Studia Iranica Cahier 56, Association pour l’Avancement des Études Iraniennes, Paris 2015.
This volume contains the text of the five Ehsan and Latifeh Yarshater Distinguished Lectures on Iranian Studies, organized by the Unité Mixte de Recherche 7528 "Mondes iranien et indien", and delivered in 2012 at the Collège de France in Paris.
For the full list of recent entries (updated to the end of November 2015), select the button below.