Compulsory-education laws enacted in 1911 and 1943 provided the legal framework for the extension of modern education into rural and tribal areas. Until the 1950s, however, the Persian government did not possess the resources to implement these laws; in addition, landowners and tribal khans resisted such efforts.
By the end of the 19th century, mosque schools (maktabs) and madrasas had lost their vitality, rigor, and scope. As modern Afghanistan emerged, internecine struggles among the ruling Abdālī and subsequently among the Moḥammadzai clan ensured that no trace of regular and systematic education remained in the country.
LATEST IN PRINT
Fascicle 2 of Volume XVI
The most recent fascicle in the print edition of Encyclopædia Iranica appeared during the second quarter of 2013. This fascicle continues the development of letter “K” topics. It begins with the ancient KASSITES and ends with the beginning of titles with initial Ke-. Especially notable in this fascicle is the comprehensive survey of the Kayanid dynasty in the traditional history of Iran, as recorded in our sources both pre-Islamic and Islamic. This entry by Prof. P. O. Skjærvø, under the title KAYĀNIĀN, is now available at this website, along with all other entries in the fascicle.
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2016 Busa Prize
The staff of Encyclopædia Iranica are happy to join in congratulating the recipient of this year's Busa Prize —Helen Agüera, who in 2014 retired from her longtime position as senior program officer in the Division of Preservation and Access at the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). The award, given by the Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations (ADHO), honors lifetime achievement in the application of technology to humanities research (see the ADHO announcement). NEH assistance to Encyclopædia Iranica began in 1979, and we remain ever grateful to Helen Agüera for her critiques and advice to this project through the years. We applaud this recognition of her aid to all the worthy projects that she has helped bring to fruition.
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