NEZAM-AL-DIN GAFFARI was among the entourage of both Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah and Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah when they were touring Europe, during which he received a variety of decorations from European governments. In his later years, Ḡaffārī held several important positions, including the minister of mines, the minister of public services, and minister of education.
The rulers of both dynasties took every opportunity to capture Kandahar, which changed hands between the two on a dozen occasions. While maritime disturbances were known to have driven merchants to use the caravan routes, during the periods of Mughal-Safavid rivalry over Kandahar, merchants would temporarily favor the more predictable maritime routes.
Fascicle 2 of Volume XVI
The most recent fascicle in the print edition of Encyclopædia Iranica appeared during the second quarter of 2013. This fascicle continues the development of letter “K” topics. It begins with the ancient KASSITES and ends with the beginning of titles with initial Ke-. Especially notable in this fascicle is the comprehensive survey of the Kayanid dynasty in the traditional history of Iran, as recorded in our sources both pre-Islamic and Islamic. This entry by Prof. P. O. Skjærvø, under the title KAYĀNIĀN, is now available at this website, along with all other entries in the fascicle.
For Encyclopædia Iranica order information, please visit the website of Eisenbrauns, Inc.
For a list of the Fascicle XVI/2 entry titles and authors, select the button below.