pen name of ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ŠARAFKANDI (b. Mahābād, 1921; d. Tehran, 1991), Kurdish poet, philologist, and translator. A master of traditional Kurdish poetry, he infused the content of his poems with a new, uncompromising militancy. His language is simple and direct, close to the spoken form, because he passionately believed in the social mission of art and wanted his works to be read and understood by all.
Christianity was introduced in Persia in the Parthian period, and several bishoprics were established there. That the Persian church was itself active in proselytizing abroad at the end of the Sasanian period (224-651) and immediately after is clear from remains in India and China.
Fascicle 2 of Volume XVI
The next fascicle in the print edition of Encyclopædia Iranica will appear during the second quarter of 2013. This fascicle continues the development of letter “K” topics. It begins with the ancient KASSITES and ends with the beginning of titles with initial Ke-. Especially notable in this fascicle is the comprehensive survey of the Kayanid dynasty in the traditional history of Iran, as recorded in our sources both pre-Islamic and Islamic. This entry by Prof. P. O. Skjærvø, under the title KAYĀNIĀN, is now available at this website, along with all other entries in the fascicle.
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New Online Entries
by Steven C. Anderson
Within Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, lizards inhabit a wide variety of biotopes, from Caspian forest habitats to active sand dunes. Although most species are diurnal, species of geckos comprise a nighttime fauna in many habitats. Lizards have many morphological adaptations that suit them to the substrates they inhabit, from specialized toe-pads in vertical rock-face dwellers to fringed-toes in loose-sand runners. Some burrowers have lost digits and entire limbs.
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