Guidelines for Authors

All entries for the Encyclopædia Iranica (EIr) are commissioned by invitation only, and each received entry is subject to peer review. The language of the EIr is English, and all submissions must follow the EIr’s in-house style in order to be accepted for review.  For all questions, please contact the editorial staff at

Font.  The entry must be written in a Unicode font; the free Unicode font used by the EIr is available for download on the internet at:

Spelling and punctuation.  The EIr uses American spelling and punctuation. Foreign words and place namesincluding place names in Iran, Afghanistan, the Middle East, Central Asia, and the Indian Subcontinentare anglicized in accordance with the 5th edition of the American Heritage Dictionary (Boston, Mass., 2011) or the Oxford English Dictionary Online. The EIr in-house style is adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed., Chicago, Ill., 2010); a free Quick Guide with sample citations is available on the internet at:

Please note that the EIr keeps a list of scholarly abbreviations on its website at:

Transliteration.  The EIr uses its own transliteration system for Persian and Arabic.  Click here for the details.  But other transliteration systems (e.g., Library of Congress, Encyclopaedia of Islam, or IJMES) are fully preserved in cited references.  

Dates.  All dates are given as Common Era (CE) dates: 2nd millennium BCE, 445-440 BCE, 7th century CE, the 1850s, 19 August 1953. Whenever a reference to other calendars is necessary, for example for dated documents or artifacts, the CE date follows the original date. For the conversion of the Islamic lunar calendar (H.), please use the free online conversion tool of the Institute of Oriental Studies at Zurich University, available at: Several websites (e.g., offer free conversion tools for the Iranian solar calendar (Š.).

Entry format.  Every EIr entry comprises a definition, a text, a bibliography, and illustrations, if needed.

The definition conveys the entry’s significance and range:

ĀBĀDĀN, name of an island and a city at the head of the Persian Gulf, within the province (ostān) of Khuzestan.

AVICENNA, philosopher and physician (980-1037 CE).

MOṬʿA, legal contract for a temporary marriage.

SHAPUR II, Sasanian king (309-379 CE).

Whenever a technical term, such as an official title, such as moḥaddeṯ (transmitter of hadith), or a religious concept, such as maktab-e ešrāq (school of Illuminationist philosophy), is mentioned for the first time, it must be followed by a gloss in parentheses.

An EIr entry has no footnotes. References to sources and studies are abbreviated in the text to the greatest extent possible as full bibliographical information is provided in the bibliography.

The titles in the bibliography are cited under the names of their author. If the bibliography contains more than one work by the same author, the year of publication is added to the author’s name in the text. Please note that the EIr keeps a list of Abbrevations of Journals on its website at:

The following example illustrate how titles are listed in a bibliography:

E. G. Browne, A Year amongst the Persians: Impressions as to the Life, Character, and Thought of the People of Persia Received during Twelve Months Residence in that Country in the Years 1887-1888, 1st ed., Cambridge, 1893.

W. B. Henning, “A List of Middle-Persian Parthian Words,” BSOS 9/1, 1937, pp. 79-92.

Idem, “The Date of Sogdian Ancient Letters,” BSOAS 12/3-4, 1948, pp. 601-15.

W. Madelung, Religious Trends in Early Islamic Iran, New York, 1988.

Mirzā Maḵdum Šarifi Širāzi, al-Nawāqeḍ le-bonyān al-rawāfeḍ; MS arab., London, British Library, MS or. 7991.

This list shows how these titles are cited in the text:

(Browne, pp. 37-39; Henning, 1948, p. 608; Henning, 1937, pp. 85-87; Madelung, pp. 76-79; Šarifi Širāzi, fols. 5b-6a)

In longer bibliographies, the listed titles are divided into Sources and Studies.


Farid-al-Din ʿAṭṭār, Manṭeq al-ṭayr, ed. M. R. Šafiʿi Kadkani, Tehran, 2004.

M. Boyce, A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian, Acta Iranica 9, Leiden, 1975.

Military Report on South-West Persia, prepared by the Division of the Chief of Staff of the Army Headquarters India, 5 vols., Simla, 1909-12; confidential government records, held in the British Library, Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections, India Office Records (IOR)/L/MIL/17/15/10; in particular Bakhtiari Garmsir (vol. I, 1909) and Bakhtiari Country North of the Karun River (vol. III, 1910).

Mottaḥed al-maʾāl, 3 Dey 1306 Š./24 December 1927; Tehran, Sāzmān-e asnād-e melli-e Irān, document no. 390006404.

Qabāla-ye kār-gozāri-e Eṣfahān, n.d.; Tehran, Sāzmān-e asnād-e melli-e Irān, document no. 291003576.


C. A. Burney, “Excavations at Yanik Tepe,” Iraq 23, 1961, pp. 138-53.

Idem, “Excavations at Haftavan Tepe, 1973: Fourth Preliminary Report,” Iran 13, 1975, pp. 149-64.

J. R. Crumb, Review of Malay Literature by G. Finchley, Critical Studies 18, 1974, pp. 313-15.

K. Kreiser, “Evliya Çelebi,” Historians of the Ottoman Empire, available online: (accessed on 08 December 2015).

F. S. Kuznetsov, “Kochevniki Irana” (Nomads of Iran), Ph.D. diss., Moscow State University, 1999.

A. Levshin, Opisanie Kirgiz-Kazachikh, ili, Kirgiz-Kaisatskikh ord i stepeǐ, St. Petersburg, 1832; tr. as Description des hordes et des steppes des Kirghiz- Kazaks, by F. de Pigny, Paris, 1840.

M. Pehlivanian, “Mesrop’s Heirs: The Early Armenian Book Printers,” in Middle-Eastern Languages and the Print Revolution: A Cross-Cultural Encounter, eds. E. Hanebutt-Benz et al., Westhofen, 2002, pp. 53-92.

H. Preissler, “Ritter, Hellmut,” Neue Deutsche Biographie XXI, 2003, pp. 660-61; also available online: (accessed on 22 July 2011).

E. D. Ross and J. Gurney, “Browne, Edward Granville,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32120.

Should authors wish to shorten long bibliographies, the EIr continues to keep a list of short titles on its website at:

Illustrations.  Each plate, figure, map, or table must be accompanied by a detailed caption. Photographs should be submitted as high-quality digital scans (600 dpi, 640 pixels). The author is responsible for obtaining the permission to publish any copyrighted material.  Please note that the EIr keeps an continually updated list of digital resources on its website, available at: Authors are encouraged to consult these resources for possible illustrations, since many of the listed databases make their digital surrogates available at no cost to academic non-profit projects such as the EIr.

Submission. Each entry should be submitted as a MS-Word document and as a pdf-file to the editorial staff at


Revised 08 December 2015