Table of Contents

  • GOLBADAN BĒGOM

    Munibur Rahman

    (ca. 1522/23-1603), daughter of Ẓahir-al-Din Moḥammad Bābor, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, half sister of Bābor’s successor, Homāyun, and author of Homāyun-nāma, the account of the reign of Homāyun.

  • GOLČIN GILĀNI

    Ahmad Karimi-Hakkak and Homa Katouzian

    (b. Rašt, 1910; d. London, 1972), pen name of the poet MAJD-AL-DIN MIR-FAḴRĀʾI. Throughout the 1940s, Golčin sent his compositions to Persia for publication; many appeared in the literary journals of the period, such as Soḵan, Yaḡmā, Armaḡān, Foruḡ, Yādgār, and Jahān-e now.

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  • GOLČIN MAʿĀNI, AḤMAD

    Iraj Afshar

    (b. Tehran, 1916; d. Mašhad, 2000), literary scholar, bibliographer, and poet. He held various administrative and judicial posts in the Ministry of Justice (1934-59). His considerable knowledge of literary manuscripts was later put to good use when he was transferred to the Majles Library, where he catalogued the Persian and Arabic manuscripts.

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  • GOLD

    Jennifer C. Ross & James W. Allan

    Persia possesses a number of gold sources—in the northwest (Azerbaijan and Zanjān), near Kāšān at the western edge of the central plateau, and, according to Strabo, in Kermān. Gold sources in Afghanistan are located in Badaḵšān, which is also the source region for lapis lazuli. 

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  • GOLDEN HORDE

    Peter Jackson

    name given to the Mongol Khanate ruled by the descendants of Joči (Juji; d. 1226-27), the eldest son of Čengiz (Genghis) Khan.

  • GOLDSMID, Major-General Sir Fredrick John

    Denis Wright

    (b. Milan, 1818; d. Hammersmith, England, 1909), British scholar, negotiator and arbitrator of Perso-Afghan boundary dispute.

  • GOLESTĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the title of two early 20th-century Persian newspapers.

  • GOLESTĀN PALACE

    Cross-Reference

    See ARG.

  • GOLESTĀN PALACE LIBRARY

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND CATALOGUES; ROYAL LIBRARY.

  • GOLESTĀN PROVINCE

    Cross-Reference

    See GORGĀN.

  • GOLESTĀN TREATY

    Elton L. Daniel

    agreement arranged under British auspices to end the Russo-Persian War of 1804-13. The origins of the war can be traced back to the decision of Tsar Paul to annex Georgia (December 1800) and, after Paul’s assassination (11 March 1801), the activist policy followed by his successor, Alexander I.

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  • GOLESTĀN-E HONAR

    Kambiz Eslami

    a 16th-century treatise on the art of calligraphy, with brief biographical notices on a selection of past and contemporary calligraphers and artists, by the Safavid author and historian Qāżi Aḥmad b. Šaraf-al-Din Ḥosayn Monši Qomi Ebrāhimi.

  • GOLESTĀN-E SAʿDI

    Franklin Lewis

    probably the single most influential work of prose in the Persian tradition, completed in 1258 by Mošarref-al-Din Moṣleḥ, known as Shaikh Saʿdi of Shiraz.

  • GOLESTĀNA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN GOLESTĀNA.

  • GOLESTĀNA, ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Mirzā MOḤAMMAD

    Hamid Algar

    b. Šāh Abu Torāb Moḥammad-ʿAli (d. 1698-99), prominent religious scholar of the Safavid period, a scion of the Golestāna family of Ḥosayni sayyeds in Isfahan.

  • GOLESTĀNA, ʿALI-AKBAR

    Maryam Ekhtiar

    (b. 1857-58; d. 1901), calligrapher, scholar, and mystic of late 19th-century Persia.

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  • GOLGUN, FARID-AL-DAWLA Mirzā MOḤAMMAD-ḤASAN KHAN HAMADĀNI

    Parviz AḏkāʾI

    (1877-1937), constitutionalist and journalist.

  • GOLHĀ, BARNĀMA-YE

    Daryush Pirnia with Erik Nakjavani

    lit. “Flowers Program”; a series of radio programs on music and poetry, on the air for almost twenty-three years (March 1956 to February 1979), which aimed at illustrating the perennial thematic and aesthetic relationships between poetry and traditional music in Persian culture.

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  • GOLINDUCH

    Sebastian Brock

    or GOLEN-DOḴT (d. 591), female Christian martyr.

  • GOLIUS, JACOBUS

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (b. The Hague, 1596; d. Leiden, 1667), Dutch orientalist who widened the scope of Persian studies, as they had been pursued by Dutch Arabists since the end of the 16th century.

  • GOLKONDA

    Cross-Reference

    See HYDERABAD.

  • GOLPAR

    Hušang Aʿlam

    any of several perennial aromatic herbaceous plants of the genus Heracleum L. (fam. Umbelliferae) growing wild in humid alpine regions in Persia and some adjacent areas.

  • GOLPĀYAGĀN

    Minu Yusofnezhad

    or GOLPĀYEGĀN; a šahrestān (county) and town located in Isfahan province, bordered on the east by the county of Barḵᵛār and Meyma, on the south by Ḵᵛānsār county, on the north by the counties of Maḥallāt and Ḵomeyn (Central province), and on the west by Aligudarz county (province of Lorestān).

  • GOLPĀYAGĀNI, ABU’L-FAŻL

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-FAŻL GOLPĀYEGĀNĪ.

  • GOLPĀYAGĀNI, MOḤAMMAD-REŻĀ

    Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi

    , Ayatollah Sayyed  (1899-1993), a chief figure in the contemporary Shiʿite clerical hierarchy (marjaʿiyat-e taqlid), who took a moderate stand in the opposition to what was considered the state’s disregard for Islamic principles in the name of modernization.

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  • GOLPĀYEGĀNI DIALECT

    Cross-Reference

    See CENTRAL DIALECTS.

  • GÖLPINARLI, ABDÜLBAKI

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    (1900-1982), Turkish scholar noted in particular for his studies of the Turkish Sufi orders. He joined many Sufi orders without remaining in any of them for long. His greatest interests were in Shiʿism and the Mevlevi (Mawlawiya) order.

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  • GOLŠAHRI, SOLAYMĀN

    EIr

     or GÜLŞEHRÎ; 13th century Ottoman Sufi and poet who wrote in Persian and Turkish.

  • GOLŠĀʾIĀN, ʿABBĀSQOLI

    Abbas Milani

    After private schooling at home, Golšāʾiān studied at the French-run Alliance Française and at the Dār al-fonun. In 1920, he enrolled in the new law school created by the Ministry of Justice (ʿAdliya). After completing the required courses in two years, he was employed at the same ministry.

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  • GOLŠAN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    cultural magazine published in the early days of 1917 in Tehran by Sayyed Reżā Yazdi “Amir Reżwāni” (d. 1936), first twice a week and from its sixth year three times a week.

  • GOLŠAN ALBUM

    Kambiz Eslami

    or Moraqqaʿ-e golšan; a sumptuous 17th-century album of paintings, drawings, calligraphy, and engravings by Mughal, Persian, Deccani, Turkish, and European artists in the Golestān Palace Library, Tehran.

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  • GOLŠAN DEHLAVI, Shah SAʿD-ALLĀH

    Moinuddin Aqeel

    b. Ḵᵛāja Moḥammad-Saʿid (1664-1728), Naqšbandi Sufi and prolific poet in Persian with the pen name (taḵallosá) Golšan.

  • GOLŠAN-E MORĀD

    John R. Perry

    a history of the Zand Dynasty (1751-94) by Mirzā Moḥammad Abu’l-Ḥasan Ḡaffāri.

  • GOLŠAN-E RĀZ

    Hamid Algar

    lit. "The Rose Garden of Mysteries"; a concise didactic matnawi in a little over a thousand distichs on the key terms and concepts of Sufism, which has for long served as a principal text of theoretical mysticism in the Persian-speaking and Persian-influenced world.

  • GOLŠANI ṢĀRUḴĀNI

    Tahsin Yazici

    a 15th-century Turkish poet who also wrote in Persian.

  • GOLŠANĪ, EBRĀHIM

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Moḥammad b. Ebrāhim b. Šehāb-al-Din (d. 1534), Sufi poet and the founder of the Golšaniya branch of the Ḵalwati Sufi order.

  • GOLŠANI, MOḤYI MOḤAMMAD

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Fatḥ-Allāh b. Abi Ṭāleb (1528/29-1606/7), scholar and author in Persian and Turkish and inventor of an artificial language.

  • GOLŠEHRI, SOLAYMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    Sufi and poet in Turkish and Persian. See GÜLŠEHRI.

  • GOLŠIRI, Hušang

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini and EIr

    (b. Isfahan, 1938; d. Tehran, 2000), novelist who explored new literary techniques. He received the Lillian Hellman and Dashiell Hammett award (1997) via the Human Rights Watch Organization and was awarded the Osnabrück Peace prize (1999) from the Erich Maria Remarque Foundation for his defense of freedom of speech.

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  • GOLSORḴI, ḴOSROW

    Maziar Behrooz

    (1943-1974), poet and revolutionary figure whose defiant stand during his televised show trial, and subsequent execution by firing squad in 1974, enshrined his place in the cultural and political history of modern Persia.

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  • GŌMAL

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    or Gōmāl:  a sub-province (woloswāli) and village in Paktiā province, eastern Afghanistan; a river originating in the Ḡazni province and flowing southeast through the Wazirestān tribal agency and  the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan; and a passage linking the eastern foothills of the Solaymān mountain range with the Indus plains.

  • GOMBROON

    Cross-Reference

    See BANDAR-e ʿABBĀS(Ī).

  • GOMBROON WARES

    Cross-Reference

    See CERAMICS; ČĪNĪ.

  • GŌMĒZ

    Mary Boyce

    cow's urine.

  • GOMIŠĀN

    Cross-Reference

    a district in Golestān Province. See GORGĀN.

  • GONĀBĀD

    Minu Yusuf-Nežād

    a town and a sub-province (šahrestān) in the province of Khorasan.

  • GONĀBĀDI ORDER

    Hamid Algar

    an offshoot of the Neʿmat-Allāhi Sufi order, still active in Persia.

  • GONĀBĀDI, ʿEMĀD-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD

    Shiro Ando

    or Jonābādi, b. Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin b. Neẓām-al-Din Moḥammad (b. 1415), Timurid financial officer and vizier.

  • GONĀBĀDI, Mirzā ABU’L-QĀSEM QĀSEMI

    Cross-Reference

    poet. See QĀSEMI Gonābādi, Mirzā Abu’l-Qāsem.

  • GONĀBĀDI, MOḤAMMAD PARVIN

    Cross-Reference

    Persian scholar and translator. See PARVIN GONĀBĀDI.