Table of Contents

  • GIVA

    Jamshid Sadaqat-Kish

    a traditional footwear in Persia, mainly consisting of an upper part made of twined white cotton thread sewn up on the edges of a cloth and leather or rubber sole. The earliest known mention of the word giva is probably ca. 1333, a reference to the bāzār-e giva-duzān (giva-makers’ market) of Shiraz.

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  • GIYAN TEPE

    Ezat O. Negahban

    or GIĀN TAPPA, Žiān Tappa; a large archeological mound located in Lorestān province in western Persia, about 10 km southeast of Nehāvand and southwest of Giān village in the Ḵāva valley.

  • GLACIERS

    Eckart Ehlers

    and ice fields in Persia. Due to Persia’s location in the very center of the arid dry belt, stretching from North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east, and also due to its very specific topography, glaciers and/or permanent ice fields are restricted and concentrated in a very few locations.

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  • GLADWIN, FRANCIS

    Parvin Loloi

    (d. ca. 1813), lexicographer and prolific translator of Persian literature into English.

  • GLASS

    Jens Kröger

    Glass blowing was invented in the Syro-Palestinian region during the Parthian period in the mid-first century B.C.E. and quickly spread from there to neighboring regions. Production of glass was much more widely spread within the Sasanian empire; it also became in both shapes and types of decoration independent from Parthian prototypes.

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  • GLASS INDUSTRY

    Willem Floor

    Glass making has been known and practiced in Iran for about 3,500 years. Until about 1930 local glass making was done in small craft workshops. The raw materials needed for glass production abound in Iran except for soda ash, but this input will also soon be entirely domestically produced.

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  • GLYPTIC

    Cross-Reference

    See CYLINDER SEALS.

  • GNOLI, GHERARDO

    Carlo Cereti

    (1937-2012), an Iranist and historian of religion, combining an extraordinary scientific output with a constant focus on cultural policy.

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  • GNOSTICISM

    Kurt Rudolph

    in Persia. The current academic term gnosticism or gnosis goes back to the early Christian period and has a heresiological background; its representatives were called Gnostics, meaning people who believed in specific “insights” and ways of behavior that deviated from the official church and its teachings and who disseminated their beliefs through their own writings.

  • GOAT

    Cross-Reference

    See BOZ.

  • GŌBADŠĀH

    D. N. Mackenzie

    the name of a mythical ruler first appearing in medieval Zoroastrianism.

  • ḠOBĀRI, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Tahsİn Yazici

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh (d. 1566), Ottoman poet, calligrapher, and Sufi who wrote in both Turkish and Persian.

  • ḠOBAYRĀ

    A. D. H. Bivar

    medieval township in Kermān province, located at 57° 29 E and 47° N, 70 km by road south of Kermān City (historical Bardsir) at the intersection of the medieval eastern highway and the route from Kermān to Bāft, Esfandaqa, and Jiroft.

  • GOBINEAU, Joseph Arthur de

    Jean Calmard

    Gobineau’s father, Louis (1784-1858), a military officer, was for a time retained in Spain (1823-28), and the son’s education was left to his adventurous mother and her lover, Charles Sottin de la Coindière, who was Arthur’s private tutor.

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  • GÖBL, ROBERT

    Michael Alram

    Gobl's mentor in studying numismatics was Karl Pink, whose methodology had a lasting influence on Göbl’s further academic career. One of Göbl’s most pressing aims was to try out Pink’s structural methodology of the minting of coins in the Roman Empire on other well-defined numismatic complexes.

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  • GOBRYAS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the most widely known (Greek) form of the Old Persian name Gaub(a)ruva, attested for various officers and officials of the Achaemenid period.

  • GOD

    Cross-Reference

    See AHURA MAZDĀ; BAGA.

  • GODARD, ANDRÉ

    Ève Gran-Aymerich and Mina Marefat

    (b. Chaumont, France, 1881; d. Paris, 1965), French architect, archeologist, art historian, and director of the Archeological Services of Iran (Edāra-ye koll-e ʿatiqāt).

  • GŌDARZ

    Mary Boyce, A. D. H. Bivar, A. Shapur Shahbazi

    name of various Iranian historical figures; an Iranian epic hero in wars against the “Turanians” in northeastern Iran; and the scion of a clan of paladins in Iranian traditional history.

  • GODIN TEPE

    T. Cuyler Young, Jr.

    or GOWDIN TEPE; an archeological site in the central Zagros, which was occupied from ca. 5,000 to 500 B.C.E. located at 48° 4′ E and 34° 31′ N in the Kangāvar valley, approximately halfway between Hamadān and Kermānšāh.

  • GOEJE, Michael Jan de

    Cross-Reference

    See DE GOEJE.

  • GOETHE INSTITUTE

    H. E. Chehabi

    in Persia and Afghanistan. Named after the celebrated German poet and writer, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), the Goethe Institute was founded in 1951 in Munich as a non-profit organization for training foreign teachers of the German language.

  • GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG von

    Hamid Tafazoli

    (1749-1832), the most renowned poet of German literature, interested in the East and in Islam.

  • ḠOJDOVĀN

    Habib Borjian

    (also Ḡojdavān, Ḡajdovān), town and district in the oasis of Bukhara.

  • ḠOJDOVĀNI

    Cross-Reference

     See ʿABD-AL-ḴĀLEQ ḠOJDOVĀNI.

  • GÖK TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See GEOY TEPE.

  • GOKARN

    Cross-Reference

    See HAOMA.

  • GÖKLEN

    Cross-Reference

    See GUKLĀN.

  • GOL

    Hušang Aʿlam

    or gul; rose (Rosa L. spp.) and, by extension, flower, bloom, blossom.

  • GOL ḴĀNĀN MORDA

    Bruno Overlaet

    Three pit graves, of which one was covered with flat stones, were found underneath the Iron Age III tombs. One contained a button base beaker and two comparable beakers were found between the Iron Age III tombs. This indicates the presence of Iron Age I graves at the site.

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  • GOL O BOLBOL

    Layla S. Diba

    lit. “rose and nightingale,” a popular literary and decorative theme. Together, rose and nightingale are the types of beloved and lover par excellence; the rose is beautiful, proud, and often cruel, while the nightingale sings endlessly of his longing and devotion.

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  • GOL-ĀQĀ

    EIr

    a weekly satirical magazine founded by Kayumarṯ Ṣāberi which first began publication on 23 October 1990.

  • GOL-E GĀVZABĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See GĀVZABĀN.

  • GOL-E GOLĀB, ḤOSAYN

    Cross-Reference

    (1895-1985) botanist, musician, poet, scholar, and member of the Farhangestān. See GOL-GOLĀB.

  • GOL-E SORḴI, ḴOSROW

    Cross-Reference

    (1943-1974), poet and revolutionary figure whose defiant stand during his televised show trial, and subsequent execution by firing squad in 1974, enshrined his place in the cultural and political history of modern Persia. See GOLSORḴI.

  • GOL-E ZARD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    literary, socio-satirical newspaper, published 1918-1924.

  • GOL-GOLĀB, ḤOSAYN

    H. Ettehad Baboli

    Among Gol-golāb’s best known songs are “Aḏarābādagān” and “Ey Irān”; the latter has become virtually the national anthem of Persia. Gol-golāb also composed Persian lyrics for the music of Georges Bizet’s Carmen and Charles Gounod’s Faust.

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  • GOLĀB

    Hušang Aʿlam

    rose water, a distillate (ʿaraq) obtained chiefly from the gol-e moḥammadi, the best-known product made from rose petals in Persia, widely used in sherbets, sweetmeats, as a home medicament, and on some religious occasions.

  • GOLĀBI

    Cross-Reference

    See PEAR.

  • ḠOLĀM

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement; on ḡolāms as military slaves, see BARDA AND BARDA-DĀRĪ.

  • ḠOLĀM ʿABD-AL-QĀDER NAẒIR

    Cross-Reference

    author of Golestān-e nasab. See NAẒIR.

  • ḠOLĀM HAMADĀNI

    Cross-Reference

    author of Taḏkera-ye fārsi and other works. See MOṢḤAFI.

  • ḠOLĀM JILĀNI

    Cross-Reference

    poet and author of Dorr-e manẓum. See RAFʿAT.

  • ḠOLĀM SARVAR

    Arif Naushahi

    b. Mofti Ḡolām Moḥammad LĀHURI (b. Lahore, 1828; d. near Medina, 1890), historian, hagiographer, and poet in Persian and Urdu.

  • ḠOLĀM YAḤYĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḠOLĀM-ʿALI

    Cross-Reference

    See NAQŠBANDI ORDER.

  • ḠOLĀM-ʿALI KHAN, AMIR TUMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAZĪZ-AL-SOLṬĀN.

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN ṢĀḤEB(-E) EḴTIĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMĪN-E ḴALWAT.

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN SEPAHDĀR

    Cross-Reference

    provincial governor and minister of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah. See SEPAHDĀR.

  • ḠOLĀM-ḤOSAYN KHAN ṬABĀṬABĀʾI

    Arif Naushahi

    (b. Delhi, 1727-28, d. after 1781), Sayyed, secretary (monši) by profession, political intermediary, and author of a popular history of India called Siar al-motaʾaḵḵerin.