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Rudi P. Matthee
Virtually all available information on the practice of gift giving in pre-modern Persia is limited to the political elite; It is clear, though, that offering gifts was a conspicuous part of traditional social and political life in Persia.
This habit of gift giving was part of the fabric of Persian life and held for all classes and ranks or social and ethnic groups.
or Ḡelān; province at the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea.
Gīlān includes the northwestern end of the Alborz chain and the western part of the Caspian lowlands of Persia. The mountainous belt is cut through by the deep transversal valley of the Safīdrūd between Manjīl and Emāmzāda Hāšem near Rašt.This Article Has Images/Tables.
The first general census was carried out in 1956 and the sixth in 1996. The geographical boundaries and area have varied from one census to another; at the present time it is 14,819 square kilometers and includes 99 districts, 30 counties and 12 townships. In 1996, there were 2,700 settlements and 35 cities.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Ezat O. Negahban
The archeology of Gīlān, particularly in the pre-Islamic period, is usually studied in the wider context of the entire south Caspian region, including Mazandarān and Gorgān. Articles on three important locations, Marlik Tepe, Amlaš, and Deylamān, illustrate the perennial difficulties faced by archeological research in Persia.This Article Has Images/Tables.
The Gelae (Gilites) seem to have entered the region south of the Caspian coast and west of the Amardos River (later Safīdrūd) in the second or first century B.C.E.
Gīlān has traditionally been considered by its local population as a land of two distinct regions divided by the course of Safīdrūd River.
EIr and Reza Rezazadeh Langaroudi
The rapid decline of the Safavids in the first decades of the 18th century, leading to their ultimate demise in 1722, created a general state of chaos in the country.