Table of Contents

  • GHAZNAVIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an Islamic dynasty of Turkish slave origin 977-1186, which in its heyday ruled in the eastern Iranian lands, briefly as far west as Ray and Jebāl; for a while in certain regions north of the Oxus, most notably, in Kᵛārazm; and in Baluchistan and in northwestern India.

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  • GHILAIN, Antoine

    Aloïs van Tongerloo

    In addition to his demanding teaching responsibilities, Ghilain continued with his academic work at the University of Leuven. The commitment documents his intellectual stamina and iron will, as he had to travel by train between La Louvière and Leuven, even in the dark days of World War II when Belgium was under German occupation.

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  • GHIRSHMAN, ROMAN

    Laurianne Martinez-Sève

    Ghirshman came from an affluent family in Kharkov and was enlisted in 1914 into the Russian army. In 1917, he joined the counter-revolutionary camp, and after the Communist victory took refuge in Istanbul, where he earned a living as a violinist.

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  • GHURIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    There were at least three raids by the early Ghaznavids into Ḡūr, led by Sultan Maḥmūd and his son Masʿūd, in the first decades of the 11th century; these introduced Islam and brought Ḡūr into a state of loose vassalage to the sultans.

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  • GĪĀH-ŠENĀSĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BOTANICAL STUDIES.

  • GĪĀʾĪ, ḤAYDAR

    Mina Marefat

    or Heydar Ghiaï-Chamlou (b. Tehran, 1922; d. Cap d’Antibe, 1985), an influential pioneer of modern architecture in Persia and professor at the University of Tehran. Stylistically, his work was thoroughly “modern,” introducing aspects of the contemporary and International Style architecture of Europe and using new technology and materials such as aluminum.

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  • GĪĀN TAPPA

    Cross-Reference

    See GIYAN TEPE.

  • GĪĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    a Lori dialect. See GĪŌNĪ.

  • GIANTS, THE BOOK OF

    Werner Sundermann

    a book mentioned as a canonical work of Mani in the Coptic Kephalaia, in the Homilies and Psalms, as well as in the Chinese compendium of Mani’s teachings.

  • ḠIĀṮ AL-LOḠĀT

    Solomon Bayevsky

    lit. "Aid in [the explication of] vocabulary," punning on the author’s name; a Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1827 by the linguist, philologist, and poet Moḥammad Ḡiāṯ- al-Din b. Jamāl-al-Din b. Jamāl-al-Din b. Šaraf-al-Din Rāmpuri Moṣṭafā-ābādi.