Table of Contents

  • GIYAN TEPE

    Ezat O. Negahban

    or GIĀN TAPPA, Žiān Tappa; a large archeological mound located in Lorestān province in western Persia, about 10 km southeast of Nehāvand and southwest of Giān village in the Ḵāva valley.

  • GLACIERS

    Eckart Ehlers

    and ice fields in Persia. Due to Persia’s location in the very center of the arid dry belt, stretching from North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east, and also due to its very specific topography, glaciers and/or permanent ice fields are restricted and concentrated in a very few locations.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GLADWIN, FRANCIS

    Parvin Loloi

    (d. ca. 1813), lexicographer and prolific translator of Persian literature into English.

  • GLASS

    Jens Kröger

    Glass blowing was invented in the Syro-Palestinian region during the Parthian period in the mid-first century B.C.E. and quickly spread from there to neighboring regions. Production of glass was much more widely spread within the Sasanian empire; it also became in both shapes and types of decoration independent from Parthian prototypes.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GLASS INDUSTRY

    Willem Floor

    Glass making has been known and practiced in Iran for about 3,500 years. Until about 1930 local glass making was done in small craft workshops. The raw materials needed for glass production abound in Iran except for soda ash, but this input will also soon be entirely domestically produced.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GLYPTIC

    Cross-Reference

    See CYLINDER SEALS.

  • GNOSTICISM

    Kurt Rudolph

    in Persia. The current academic term gnosticism or gnosis goes back to the early Christian period and has a heresiological background; its representatives were called Gnostics, meaning people who believed in specific “insights” and ways of behavior that deviated from the official church and its teachings and who disseminated their beliefs through their own writings.

  • GOAT

    Cross-Reference

    See BOZ.

  • GŌBADŠĀH

    D. N. Mackenzie

    the name of a mythical ruler first appearing in medieval Zoroastrianism.

  • ḠOBĀRI, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN

    Tahsİn Yazici

    b. ʿAbd-Allāh (d. 1566), Ottoman poet, calligrapher, and Sufi who wrote in both Turkish and Persian.