Table of Contents

  • GROTEFEND, GEORG FRIEDRICH

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (b. Hannoversch-Münden, 1775; d. Hannover, 1853), German philologist and scholar of oriental studies.

  • GROUSSET, RENÉ

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (b. Aubais, Gard, France, 1885; d. Paris, 1952), French historian who based his wide-ranging research on the studies of the leading French orientalists of his time, and wrote works of synthesis on various aspects of Oriental history and culture.

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  • GRUMBATES

    Cross-Reference

    See CHIONITES.

  • GRUNDRISS DER IRANISCHEN PHILOLOGIE

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Encyclopaedia of Iranian Philology; Strassburg, 1895-1904, reprinted Berlin and New York, 1974), the first attempt to summarize the knowledge of all subjects concerning Iran — the languages and literatures, history and culture of Iran and the Iranian peoples — that had been achieved by the end of the 19th century.

  • GRÜNWEDEL, ALBERT

    Werner Sundermann

    (b. Munich, 1856; d. Lenggries, 1935), prominent German Indologist, Tibetologist, art scholar, and archeologist.

  • GRYUNBERG TSVETINOVICH, ALEKSANDR LEONOVICH

    Vladmir Kushev

    (b. St. Petersburg, 1930; d. St. Petersburg, 1995), Russian linguist who specialized in Iranian languages.

  • GUARDIAN COUNCIL

    A. Schirazi

    or Šurā-ye Negahbān; a powerful 12-member council with vast legislative and executive jurisdictions that forms a cornerstone of the Islamic Republic’s Constitution.

  • GUBARU

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Babylonian rendering of the Iranian name Gaub(a)ruva, which is best known in the Greek form Gōbryas.

  • GUDARZ

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌDARZ.

  • GUEVREKIAN, GABRIEL

    Mina Marefat

    (b. Istanbul, 1900; d. 1970), Armenian avant-garde architect, an influential figure in the development of modern architecture in Persia, linking Persian architects with Europe’s pioneers of the modern movement.

  • GUIDI, IGNAZIO

    Erich Kettenhofen

    Guidi’s most valuable discovery,  the Syriac chronicle of an anonymous Nestorian Christian, contains otherwise non-attested details of late Sasanian history. Guidi recognized the significance of the synodal records of the Nestorian church for reconstructing the administration of the empire. 

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  • GUIDI’S CHRONICLE

    Sebastian P. Brock

    an anonymous, 7th-century chronicle of Nestorian Christians, known also as “the Khuzistan Chronicle,” written in Syriac and covering the period from the reign of the Sasanian Hormizd/Hormoz IV (579-89) to the middle of the 7th century and the time of the early Arab conquests.

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  • GUILDS

    Cross-Reference

    See AṢNĀF; CHAMBER OF GUILDS; CHAMBER OF COMMERCE; BĀZĀR iii.

  • GUILLEMIN, MARCELLE

    Anne Draffkorn Kilmer

    One of the early investigators of the reconstruction of ancient Babylonian musical scales and music theory, she was the first scholar to explore and explain the musicological significance of the sequence of number-pairs of musical strings in a cuneiform text of the first millennium B.C.E. excavated at the archaeological site of Nippur in southern Iraq.

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  • GUJARAT

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    (Skt. Gurjaṛ), a province of India on its northwestern coastline.

  • GUJARATI

    K. M. Jamaspasa

    or Gojarati; the mother tongue of Gujaratis, which has been for centuries a vehicle of thought and expression for Hindus, Parsis, and Muslims of Gu-jarat in western India.

  • GUJASTAG ABĀLIŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABĀLIŠ.

  • GUKLĀN

    Pierre Oberling

    Turkmen tribal confederacy of the Gorgān region in northeastern Persia, the district of Qara Qalʿa in Turkmenistan, and the Ḵiva region in Uzbekistan.

  • ḠUL

    Mahmoud and Teresa P. Omidsalar

    designation of a fantastic, frightening creature in the Perso-Arabic lore.

  • GULBARGA

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    or Golbargā; city and district in the central Deccan, India.