Table of Contents

  • GIBBON, EDWARD

    Michael Rogers

    (1737-1794), author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (London, 1776-88). Relations of Persia and the later steppe nomads with the East Roman/Byzantine empire are an essential component of Gibbon’s celebrated history.

  • GIFT GIVING

    Multiple Authors

    i. Introduction, ii. In Pre-Islamic Persia, iii. In the Medieval Period, iv. In the Safavid Period, v. In the Qajar Period.

  • GIFT GIVING i, ii, iii

    EIr, Josef Wiesehöfer

    in Persia. The following articles constitute a preliminary attempt at studying various aspects of gift giving in a chronological and historical framework, from the pre-Islamic era to the early modern period.

  • GIFT GIVING iv

    Rudi P. Matthee

    iv. In the Safavid Period.

  • GIFT GIVING v

    Willem Floor

    v. In the Qajar Period.

  • GĪLAKĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See GĪLĀN x. Languages

  • GILĀN

    Multiple Authors

    or Ḡelān; province at the southwestern coast of the Caspian Sea. 

  • GĪLĀN i. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

    Marcel Bazin

    Gīlān includes the northwestern end of the Alborz chain and the western part of the Caspian lowlands of Persia. The mountainous belt is cut through by the deep transversal valley of the Safīdrūd between Manjīl and Emāmzāda Hāšem near Rašt. To the northwest, the Ṭāleš highlands stretch a continuous watershed separating Gīlān and Azerbaijan.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GĪLĀN ii. Population

    Habibollah Zanjani

    The first general census was carried out in 1956 and the sixth in 1996. The geographical boundaries and area have varied from one census to another; at the present time it is 14,819 square kilometers and includes 99 districts, 30 counties and 12 townships. In 1996, there were 2,700 settlements and 35 cities.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GĪLĀN iii. Archeology

    Ezat O. Negahban

    The archeology of Gīlān, particularly in the pre-Islamic period, is usually studied in the wider context of the entire south Caspian region, including Mazandarān and Gorgān. Articles on three important locations, Marlik Tepe, Amlaš, and Deylamān, illustrate the perennial difficulties faced by archeological research in Persia.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.