Table of Contents

  • ḠARB-ZADEGĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḠARČESTĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    name of a region in early Islamic times, situated to the north of the upper Harīrūd and the Paropamisus range and on the head waters of the Moṟḡāb.

  • GARCIN DE TASSY

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GARDANE MISSION

    Jean Calmard

    (1807-9), a diplomatic and military project between France and Persia which represented Napoleon’s last attempt to realize his Oriental ambitions. From late 1795, Persia became part of French projects against British India. From the renewal of Franco-Ottoman relations (June 1802), he sought information on Persia.

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  • GARDEN

    Multiple Authors

    referring to a garden estate, intended primarily for pleasure rather than permanent residence or production of crops, formally laid out, usually incorporating architectural elements, such as ornamental pools, gate-houses, and pavilions.

  • GARDEN i. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Mehrdad Fakour

    Since the first millenium B.C.E., the garden has been an integral part of Persian architecture, be it imperial or vernacular.

  • GARDEN ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Lisa Golombek

    Donald Wilber’s study of the Persian garden remains the most comprehensive, to which should be added the articles by Ettinghausen and Pinder-Wilson in the proceedings of the Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the Islamic Garden.

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  • GARDEN iii. INFLUENCE OF PERSIAN GARDENS IN INDIA

    Howard Crane

    Traces of Sultanate period gardens in the Persian style survive around Delhi in the citadel (Kōṭlā) of the Tughluqid Fīrūzšāh III (1351-88) and at Vasant Vihar (14th century). Mughal landscape architecture, which was characterized by terraced sites, čahārbāḡ  plans, and raised walks, is perhaps most renowned for its dramatic and inventive use of moving water.

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  • GARDEN iv. BOTANICAL GARDENS

    Borhan Riazi

    In Persia there are only three botanical gardens (bāḡ-e gīāh-šenāsī) in the exact scientific sense of this term.

  • GARDEN vi. IN PERSIAN ART

    Lisa Golombek

    For the decorative arts, the “garden carpet” is the quintessential re-creation of the garden, while paintings depict the garden as a setting for events. Vegetal motifs as ornament may be understood as generic allusions to the garden. In special circumstances, these allusions may be viewed as allusions to paradise themes.

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