Table of Contents

  • GŌSPAND

    Cross-Reference

    See  CATTLE.

  • GOSPEL

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLE.

  • GOSTAHAM

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    name of two heroes in the Šāh-nāma.

  • GOŠTĀSP

    A. Shapur Shabazi

    Kayanian king of Iranian traditional history and patron of Zoroaster.

  • GŌŠURUN

    William W. Malandra

    the Pahlavi name for the soul of the Sole-created Bull.

  • GOTARZES

    Cross-Reference

    See GŌDARZ.

  • GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO

    Dagmar Riedel

    Gottheil’s tenure at the New York Public Library (NYPL) is of relevance to the field of Iranian studies because he oversaw the development of its Near Eastern and Asian collections, first as Chief of Semitica and Orientalia (1897-1901), and afterwards as Chief of the Oriental Division.

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  • GÖTTINGEN, UNIVERSITY OF, HISTORY OF IRANIAN STUDIES

    Ludwig Paul

    History of Iranian Studies at the University of Göttingen.

  • GOUVEA, ANTONIO DE

    Rudi Matthee

    (b. Beja, Portugal, 1575; d. Manzanares, Spain, 1628), Augustinian missionary and Portuguese envoy who visited Persia three times between 1602 and 1613 and who wrote on Persia.

  • GOVĀḴARZ

    Cross-Reference

    a district in the medieval province of Qohestān in Khorasan. See BĀKARZ.

  • GOWD-E ZEREH

    Cross-Reference

    See HĀMUN;

  • GOWDIN TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    an archeological site in western Persia. See GODIN TEPE.

  • GOWHAR

    Nasereddin Parvin

    a cultural journal published monthly from January 1973 to December 1978 (issue no. 72) of the philanthropic organization of Mortażā Nuriāni.

  • GOWHAR ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a Saljuq princess who became the second wife of the Ghaznavid Sultan Masʿud III (r. 1099-1115).

  • GOWHAR-ĀʾĪN, Saʿd-al-dawla

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (d. 1100), Turkish eunuch slave commander of the Great Saljuqs.

  • GOWHAR-E MORĀD (1)

    Cross-Reference

    philosopher and poet. See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ LĀHĪJĪ

  • GOWHAR-E MORĀD (2)

    Cross-Reference

    pen name of the 20th-century author Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Sāʿedi. See SA'EDI, GHOLAM-HOSAYN.

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD ĀḠĀ

    Beatrice Forbes Manz

    wife of Sultan Šāhroḵ b. Timur (r. 1409-47) and daughter of Ḡiāṯ-al-Din Tarḵān, a ranking amir under Timur.

  • GOWHAR-ŠĀD MOSQUE

    Lisa Golombek

    constructed in the early 15th century, the Friday mosque for pilgrims to the tomb of Imam ʿAli al-Reżā in Mašhad, so named after this famous shrine.

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  • GOWHARIN, SAYYED SĀDEQ

    Peter Avery

    Gowharin came from an old and distinguished family which traced its lineage back to the eponymous founder of the Nurbaḵšiyya, Sayyed Moḥammad Nurbaḵš (1392-1464). Himself a Sufi of the Ḵāksār order, his interest in mysticism went far beyond that of an academic.

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  • GOWJA FARANGI

    Cross-Reference

    See TOMATO.

  • GOWRAK

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in northwestern Persia.

  • GOWZ

    Cross-Reference

    See WALNUT.

  • GŌZEHR

    Cross-Reference

    Bazarangid ruler in Fārs. See ARDAŠĪR I.

  • GŌZIHR

    D. N. Mackenzie

    the Middle Persian development of an old Iranian compound adjective *gau-čiθra-, recorded in the Younger Avesta in the form gaočiθra-, as an epithet of the moon, “bearing the seed, having the origin of cattle” (or, “the ox”).

  • ḠOZZ

    Peter B. Golden, C. Edmund Bosworth

    a significant Turkic tribe in western Eurasia in the 5th century.

  • GRAND LODGE OF IRAN

    Cross-Reference

    See FREEMASONRY, iii-iv.

  • GRANICUS

    Ernst Badian

    river (mod. Kocabaş Çay) flowing into the Sea of Marmara.

  • GRANT DUFF, Sir EVELYN MOUNTSTUART

    Denis Wright

    (b. 1863; d. Bath, 1926), British diplomat serving successively in Rome, Tehran, St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Berlin, then London.

  • GRANT, Captain NATHANIEL PHILIP

    Denis Wright

    (b. New York, 1774; k. Ḵorramābād, 1810), a military officer of the East India Company.

  • GRANTOVSKIĬ, EDVIN ARVIDOVICH

    Mohammad Dandamayev

    Grantovskiĭ specialized in the history of ancient Iranian tribes (especially the Medes, Persians and Scythians) and their civilizations. His research was based on Akkadian and Urartian inscriptions, Iranian texts, and classical sources  and on evidence of archaeology, ethnography, and folklore.

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  • GRAPES

    Cross-Reference

    See ANGŪR.

  • GRAPHIC ARTS

    Mortażā Momayyez, Peter Chelkowski

    Broadly speaking, graphic art and design have a long history in Persia; their antecedents can be seen in graphic motifs and patterns on ancient clay and metal vessels, stone reliefs, seals, brickwork, glazed tiles, plaster and wood carvings, cloths, carpets, marquetry, miniature paintings, calligraphy, and illumination of manuscripts.

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  • GRAY, BASIL

    John Michael Rogers

    Gray's initiation into eastern art, for which there was then no provision at any British university, came in 1928, when he worked for a season on the excavations at the great palace of the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople, followed by study in Vienna under Josef Strzygowski, who was, however, already sunk deep in diffusionism.

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  • GRAY, LOUIS HERBERT

    William W. Malandra

    In 1921 Gray was appointed associate professor of philology at the University of Nebraska, where he remained until his appointment at Columbia University as professor of Oriental Languages in 1926. In 1935, he became Professor of Comparative Linguistics, a position he held until his retirement in 1944.

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  • GREAT BRITAIN

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Introduction, ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present, iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century, iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21, v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41, vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79, vii. British Travelers to Persia, viii. British Archeological Excavations, ix. Iranian Studies in Britian, Pre-Islamic, x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period, xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain, xii. The Persian Community in Britain, xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), xiv. The British Institute of Persian Studies, xv. British Schools in Persia.

  • GREAT BRITAIN i. INTRODUCTION

    EIr

    During the 16th century, several unsuccessful attempts were made by the Muscovy (or Russia) Company of London to develop trade between London and Persia via Russia.

  • GREAT BRITAIN ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present

    Denis Wright

    Prior to the Safavid period, contacts between Britain and Persia were confined to the 13th century, and were infrequent and of short duration.

  • GREAT BRITAIN iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century

    Abbas Amanat

    British imperial interests in Persia in the Qajar period were primarily determined by the concern for the security of colonial India and, secondarily, by trade, telegraphic communication, and financial or other conces-sionary agreements.

  • GREAT BRITAIN iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21

    Mansour Bonakdarian

    In the late 1890s, the Foreign Office in London came to regard Germany as the main threat to the European balance of power and British imperial hegemony around the globe.

  • Great Britain v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41

    Stephanie Cronin

    During the reign of Reżā Shah (1925-1941) a profound transformation took place in both the character and the scope of British influence in Persia.

  • Great Britain vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    For the greater part of the Qajar era (1796-1924) Persia was the scene of intense rivalry between the Russian and British empires.

  • Great Britain vii. British Travelers to Persia

    Denis Wright

    The British, more than any others, have been prolific authors of travelogues, and memoirs about Persia.

  • Great Britain viii. British Archeological Excavations

    St. J. Simpson

    excavations began in Persia before the so-called “French monopoly” on archeological excavations.

  • Great Britain ix. Iranian Studies in Britain, Pre-Islamic

    A. D. H. Bivar

    Several fields of pre-Islamic Iranian Studies have seen great expansion during recent centuries, and to these, scholars and travelers from Great Britain have made substantial contributions.

  • Great Britain x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period

    Charles Melville

    British interest in, and scholarship on, Persia and Persian culture in the Islamic period goes back to the first formal contacts between the two countries, that is, at least to the 16th century and the growth of Britain’s involvement in the Levant and East Indian trades.

  • Great Britain xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain

    J. Michael Rogers

    The collecting of Persian art in Great Britain goes back at least to the missions despatched by the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I (1588-1629) and the activities of the Sherley brothers at his court in Isfahan. The early 17th century also saw the growth of trade with Persia through the East India Company.

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  • Great Britain xii. The Persian Community in Britain (1)

    Kathryn Spellman

    This entry will be treated in two separate articles: (1) Persian Community and (2) The Library for Iranian Studies.

  • Great Britain xii. The Persian Community in Britain (2)

    Namdar Baghaei-Yazdi

    The Library for Iranian Studies in London was opened to members on 16 November 1991 and at that time the library consisted of a collection of 2,500 books and other publications.

  • Great Britain xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)

    F. Safiri and H. Shahidi

    In the late 1930s, the British Government began to fund BBC broadcasts in languages other than English designed to counter anti-British broadcasts from Germany and Italy. The first were  in Arabic, in January 1938, followed by Spanish and Portuguese to Latin America in March. Persian broadcasts followed  in December 1940.

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