Table of Contents

  • KARAJ DAM

    Cross-reference

    See AMIR KABIR DAM (forthcoming online).

  • KARAJ RIVER

    Bernard Hourade

    the second major permanent river of the central Iranian plateau after the Zāyandarud river.

  • KARAKI

    Rula Jurdi Abisaab

    Nur-al-Din Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Ḥosayn b. ʿAbd-al-ʿĀli, known as Moḥaqqeq al-Ṯāni or Moḥaqqeq ʿAli (1464-1533), a major Imamite jurist.

  • KARĀMA

    Erik S. Ohlander

    “(saintly) marvel, wonder, or miracle” in Arabic (pl. karāmāt).

  • KARAPAN

    William Malandra

    (or Karpan), designation of members of a class of daivic priests opposed to the religion of Zarathustra.

  • ḴᵛĀRAZMŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    title assumed by various rulers of Ḵᵛārazm (Chorasmia). See CHORASMIA ii. In Islamic times and ĀL-E AFRĪḠ.

  • KARBALA

    Meir Litvak

    a city in Iraq, situated about 90 km southwest of Baghdad. It is one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities (with Najaf, Kāẓemayn, and Sāmarrāʾ) in Iraq known in Shʿite Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿaliāt or ʿatabāt-e moqaddasa.

  • KÁRDAKES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the name of a Persian military unit mentioned several times by Greek and Roman authors, nearly always in relation to the Achaemenid period (cf. Huyse, p. 199, n. 6).

  • KĀRGĀNRUD

    Cross-Reference

    the northernmost and largest of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān.

  • KARGAR, DARIUSH

    Forogh Hashabeiky and Behrooz Sheyda

    (1953-2012), Iranist, fiction writer, and journalist. Kargar’s later works of fiction, written in Sweden, participate in the more modern spectrum of writing in the twentieth century and are characterized by his experimentations with disrupted chronology, non-linear plots, and interrupted language reminiscent of stream of consciousness.

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  • KĀRGOZĀR

    Morteza Nouraei

    a term used from the early 19th century until the abolishment of capitulation (kāpitulāsion) in 1927 to refer specifically to an agent of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who was charged with regulating relations between Iranian subjects and foreigners.

  • KARIM DEVONA

    Keith Hitchins

    pen-name of Abdul-Karim Qurbon, Tajik folk poet (1878-1918).

  • KARIM KHAN ZAND

    John R. Perry

    (ca. 1705-1779), “The Wakil,” ruler of Persia (except Khorasan) from Shiraz during 1751-79. The Zand were a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of the northern Lors, ranging between the inner Zagros and the Hamadān plains, centered on the villages of Pari and Kamāzān in the vicinity of Malāyer.

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  • KĀRIN

    Parvaneh Pourshariati

    one of the seven great families of the Parthian and Sasanian periods.

  • KĀRIZ

    Xavier de Planhol

    underground irrigation canals, also called qanāt. The kārēz conducts water from the level of an aquifer to the open air by means of simple gravity in order to distribute it to lower areas.

  • KĀRIZ i. Terminology

    Xavier de Planhol

    underground irrigation canals, also called qanāt.

  • KĀRIZ ii. TECHNOLOGY

    Xavier de Planhol

    The technology of kārēz exploits a difference in grade between a tunnel and the groundwater table, so it ends at an elevation higher than that of the water table. In Iran the average grade may be around 0.5 percent.

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  • KĀRIZ iii. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CONTEXTS

    Xavier de Planhol

    The major significance of the kārēz lies in its continuous discharge throughout the year. In contrast, irrigation systems that rely on surface water runoff can completely cease to discharge water during the dry season.

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  • KĀRIZ iv. ORIGIN AND DISSEMINATION

    Xavier de Planhol

    One very common technique is an underflow channel in a river valley, which captures water from the shallow aquifer formed by seepage from the watercourse.

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  • KĀRIZ v. KĀRĒZ IN THE LATE 20TH CENTURY AND THEIR PROSPECTS

    Xavier de Planhol

    In 1990 it was estimated that the kārēz technique supplied water to around 1.5 million hectares of the planet’s total irrigated surface area, which constituted only the minor portion of approximately 0.6 percent.

  • KARḴEH RIVER

    Eckart Ehlers

    the third longest river in Iran after the rivers Karun and Safidrud, flowing in the western provinces of the country. It rises from the Zagros mountain range. 

  • KARNĀ

    Stephen Blum

    designation of three types of musical instrument, the most prestigious being long trumpets made of brass, gold, silver, or other metals. Two regional instruments of Iran are also called karnā. Like the metal karnā, the long reed trumpet of Gilān and Māzandarān lacks fingerholes.

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  • KARRĀMIYA

    Aron Zysow

    the adherents to a theological and legal movement with a broad following in Khorasan and Afghanistan from the 10th to the 13th centuries, with its intellectual center in Nishapur (Nišāpur). 

  • KARSĀSP

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Avestan dragon-slayer, son of Sāma, and eschatological hero. In the Pahlavi and Zoroastrian Persian traditions, several heroic feats are connected with him.

  • KARSĪVAZ

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø, Mahmoud Omidsalar

    in the old Iranian epic tradition the brother of the Turanian king, Afrāsiāb, and the man most responsible for the murder of the Iranian prince Siāvaš. 

  • KART DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E KART.

  • KARTIR

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    a prominent Zoroastrian priest  in the second half of the 3rd century CE, known from his inscriptions and mentioned in Middle Persian, Parthian, and Coptic Manichean texts.

  • KARTLI

    George Sanikidze

    region occupying most of eastern Georgia. The original name of Georgia (Sakartvelo) and the Georgian people (Kartvelebi) derive from Kartli. 

  • KARUN RIVER i. Geography and Hydrology, ii

    Habib Borjian

    the largest river and the only navigable waterway in Iran. It rises in the Baḵtiāri Zagros mountains west of Isfahan, flows out of the central Zagros range, traverses the Khuzestan plain, and joins the Shatt al-Arab. 

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  • KARUN RIVER iii. The Opening of the Karun

    Shabaz Shahnavaz

    With the intensification of the Anglo-Russian rivalry in the late 1800s over Iran’s geopolitical position and commercial resources, Great Britain began to exert immense pressure on the shah’s government to provide it with access to the Karun trade route. 

  • KĀŠĀNI, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ KHAN

    Mangol Bayat

    18th-century governor of Kashan under the Zand dynasty. 

  • KĀŠĀNI, SAYYED ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Ali Rahnema

    (1877-1962), the leading political cleric during the critical period of 1941-53. Until the departure of Reza Shah in 1941, Kāšāni stayed on the sidelines of domestic Iranian politics. Mohammad Reza Shah ascended to his father’s throne on 16 September.

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  • KĀŠEF ŠIRĀZI

    J. T . P. de Bruijn

    Persian writer on ethics and poet of the Safavid period (b. Karbalā, ca. 1592; d. Ray, ca. 1653). 

  • KĀŠEF-AL-ḠEṬĀʾ, JAʿFAR

    Hamid Algar

    (1743-1812), Shiʿi scholar and jurist, broadly influential in both Iraq and Persia. His cognomen, meaning “remover of the veil,” alludes to one of his best known works.

  • KĀŠEF-AL-ḠEṬĀʾ, MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYN

    Hamid Algar

    (1877-1954), descendant of the great Shiʿite jurist of the early Qajar period, Sheikh Jaʿfar Kāšef-al-Ḡeṭāʾ, prodigious and versatile author, teacher, and lecturer.

  • KĀŠEF-AL-SALṬANA

    Ranin Kazemi

    also known as Čāykār (tea planter), Qajar diplomat, reformer, author, constitutionalist, and promoter of tea cultivation (1865-1929)

  • KĀŠEFI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlı

    (d. 15th century), author of the epic poem Ḡazā-nāma-ye Rum on the lives of the Ottoman sultans Morād II (r. 1421-44 and 1446-51) and Moḥammad II (r. 1444-46 and 1451-81).

  • KĀŠEFI, KAMĀL-AL-DIN ḤOSAYN WĀʿEẒ

    M. E . Subtelny

    prolific prose-stylist of the Timurid era, religious scholar, Sufi figure, and influential preacher (b. Sabzavār, ca. 1436-37; d. Herat, 1504-5).

  • KĀSEMI, NOṢRAT-ALLĀH

    Mostafa Alamouti and EIr.

    (1908-1996), physician, poet, writer, orator, and politician.

  • KAŠF AL-ASRĀR

    Cross-reference

    wa ʿoddat al-abrār of Abu’l-Fażl Rašid-al-Dīn Meybodi. See MEYBODI.

  • KAŠF AL-LOḠĀT WA’L-EṢṬELĀḤĀT

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (Revealing [of the meaning] of words and terminology), title of a Persian dictionary compiled in India before 1608.

  • KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB of Hojviri

    Jawid Mojaddedi

    the only surviving work of Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. ʿOṯmān Hojviri (d. between 1073 and 1077) and the oldest surviving independent manual of Sufism written in Persian.

  • KAŠF AL-MAḤJUB of Sejzi

    Hermann Landolt

    (“Unveiling the hidden”), the Persian version of an Ismaʿili treatise originally written in Arabic by the 10th century dāʾi. 

  • KAŠF AL-ẒONUN

    Kioumars Ghereghlou

    (“Unveiling of suppositions”), a major bibliographical dictionary in Arabic, composed by Kāteb Čelebi Moṣṭafā b. ʿAbd-Allāh, also known as Ḥāji Ḵalifa (1609-57).

  • KAŠF O ŠOHUD

    Cyrus Ali Zargar

    (“unveiling and witnessing”), terms commonly used by Muslim mystics to describe the acquisition of esoteric knowledge and the constant first-hand encountering of the divine presence. 

  • KAŠF-E ḤEJĀB

    Cross-reference

    See VEILING AND UNVEILING. Forthcoming.

  • KAŠFI, MIR MOḤAMMAD ṢĀLEḤ ḤOSAYNI

    Sunil Sharma

    (d. 1651), calligrapher and poet in Mughal India. Authored several works in verse and prose.

  • KĀŠḠARI, SAʿD-AL-DIN

    Hamid Algar

    (d. 1456), propagator of the Naqšbandi order in Timurid Herat, noteworthy primarily as the initiator ofʿAbd-al-Ramān Jāmi into the path.

  • KASHAN

    Multiple Authors

    historical city and a sub-province of the province of Isfahan on the north-south axial route of central Iran.

  • KASHAN i. GEOGRAPHY

    Habibollah Zanjani and EIr.

    Kashan is poor in flora and fauna. The most typical plants are bushes and shrubs spreading over the steppes, but the landscape becomes richer with increased elevation; Characteristic trees are pine, cypress, black poplar, elm, and ash.

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