Table of Contents

  • KĀVA NEWSPAPER

    Iraj Afšār

    In this period, Germany, with no apparent interests in Iran, was favored by nationalist Iranians, who believed that it was the one that could free Iran from the political and economic domination of Great Britain and Russia.  The name of the paper recalled Kāva, the legendary hero who rose against Żaḥḥāk, the bloodthirsty tyrant.

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  • ḴĀVARĀN-NĀMA

    Cross-reference

    See KHAVARAN-NAMA (pending).

  • ḴĀVARI KĀŠĀNI

    Mehrdad Amanat

    preacher, poet, journalist, and constitutional activist. Ḵāvari learned the fundamentals of traditional learning from his preacher father, Sayyed Hāšem Wāʿeẓ.

  • KAVI

    cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • ḴĀVIĀR

    Cross-reference

    See CAVIAR.

  • KAVIR

    Cross-Reference

    Persian word meaning "desert." See DESERT.

  • KĀVUS

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAWĀD I

    Nikolaus Schindel

    Sasanian king, son of Pērōz I. This entry is divided into two sections:  i. Reign. ii. Coinage.

  • KAWĀD I i. Reign

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The reign of Kawād I, lasting with an interruption of some three years from 488 to 531, is a turning point in Sasanian history.

  • KAWĀD I ii. Coinage

    Nikolaus Schindel

    Since the reign of Jāmāsp interrupts the two regnal periods of Kawād I, and because of marked differences between the two, they should be treated separately. Kawād employs only one obverse and one reverse type during his first reign. The obverse shows the king’s bust to the right wearing a crown consisting of a crescent and two mural elements, which corresponds to the second crown of Pērōz (457-84).

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  • KAWĀD II

    Cross-Reference

    Sasanian king (r. 628), son of  ḴOSROW II.   See ŠIRUYA (entry pending).

  • ḴAWARNAQ

    Renate Würsch

    a medieval castle built in the vicinity of the ancient city of al-Ḥira by Lamid rulers of Iraq to whose name frequent references has been made in pre-modern Persian literary works.

  • KAY

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAY KĀVUS

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAY ḴOSROW

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • KAY-ḴOSROW KHAN

    Hirotake Maeda

    (1674-1711), Georgian royal prince of the Kartlian branch, also known as Ḵosrow Khan.

  • KAY QOBĀD

    Cross-reference

    See KAYĀNIĀN.

  • ḴAYĀL, Mir Moḥammad-Taqi

    Mohammad Sohayb Arshad

    (d. 1759), Indian author of a collection of historical and fictitious stories composed in Persian in fifteen volumes over fourteen years and titled Bustān-e ḵayāl.

  • KAYĀNIĀN

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    (Kayanids), in the early Persian epic tradition a dynasty that ruled Iran before the Achaemenids, all of whom bore names prefixed by Kay from Avestan kauui.

  • KAYĀNIĀN i. Kavi: Avestan kauui, Pahlavi kay

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Kavi is the Indo-Iranian term for “(visionary) poet.”  The term may be older than Indo-Iranian, if Lydian kaveś and the Samothracean title cited by Hesychius as koíēs or kóēs are related.

  • KAYĀNIĀN ii. The Kayanids as a Group

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    References to the kauuis in the Avesta are found in the yašts in the lists of heroes who sacrificed to various deities for certain rewards.

  • KAYĀNIĀN iii. Kauui Kauuāta, Kay Kawād, Kay Kobād (Qobād)

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Kauui Kauuāta has no epithets in the Avesta to describe him, and the descriptions in the Pahlavi sources are mostly vague. His seed is from the xwarrah; he was the first to establish kingship in Iran; he was godfearing and a good ruler. According to a notice in the Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr, he may have married Wan, daughter of Gulaxš.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN iv. “Minor” Kayanids

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The Avesta contains no information on Aipi.vahu, Aršan, Pisinah, and Biiaršan, but, according to the Pahlavi tradition, Abīweh was the son of Kawād and the father of Arš, Biyarš (spelled <byʾlš>), Pisīn, and Kāyus.

  • KAYĀNIĀN v. Kauui Usan, Kay-Us, Kay Kāvus

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The story of Kay Us’s madness is found in two versions. According to the Bundahišn, his mind was disturbed so that he tried to go up and do battle with the sky, but he fell down and the xwarrah was stolen from him; he devastated the world with his army, until they caught and bound him by deception in the land of Šambarān.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN vi. Siiāuuaršan, Siyāwaxš, Siāvaš

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Siiāuuaršan, “the one with black stallions,” is listed in the Avesta in Yašt 13.132 as a kauui and the third with a name containing aršan “male.” 

  • KAYĀNIĀN vii. Kauui Haosrauuah, Kay Husrōy, Kay Ḵosrow

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    According to Ṯaʿālebi, having brought order to the earth, worrying that he might be subjected to hubris like several of his predecessors, Kay Ḵosrow withdrew from the world. After having appointed his successor, Kay Lohrāsb, he left to wander throughout the world, and no one heard any more from him.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN viii. Kay Luhrāsp, Kay Lohrāsb

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    In the Avesta, Vištāspa’s father is Auruuaṯ.aspa, who is mentioned only once, when Zarathustra asks Anāhitā for the ability to make Vištāspa, son of Auruuaṯ.aspa, help the daēnā along with thoughts, words, and deeds, a wish he is granted. Elsewhere, auruuaṯ.aspa “having fleet horses” is an epithet, most often of the sun.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN ix. Kauui Vištāspa, Kay Wištāsp, Kay Beštāsb/Goštāsb

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The name Vištāspa presumably means “he who gives the horses free rein” (víṣitāso áśvāḥ “horses let loose or given free rein”), which agrees with the description of Vištāspa as the prototypical winner of the chariot race in Yašt 5.132.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN x. The End of the Kayanids

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    In the Pahlavi texts. The Bundahišn only records that, when Wahman, son of Spandyād, came to the throne, Iran was a wasteland, and the Iranians were quarreling with one another.

  • KAYĀNIĀN xi. The Kayanids and the Kang-dez

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    According to the Pahlavi texts, Kay Siāwaxš built the Kang castle (Kang-diz) by miraculous power (Pahlavi Rivāyat: with his own hands, by means of the [Kavian] xwarrah and the might of Ohrmazd and the Amahrspands).

  • KAYĀNIĀN xii. The Kavian XVARƎNAH

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The nature of the Avestan xᵛarənah and its three subtypes, the Aryan (airiiana), the “unseizable” (? axᵛarəta), and the Kavian (kāuuaiia).

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiii. Synchronism of the Kayanids and Near Eastern History

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The desire of the medieval historians to fit all the ancient narratives into one and the same chronological description of world history from the creation led them to coordinate the Biblical, Classical, and Iranian sources.

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiv. The Kayanids in Western Historiography

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Henry C. Rawlinson contrasted the “distorted and incomplete allusions to Jemshíd and the Kayanian monarchs which are found in the Vendidád Sadé and in the ancient hymns,” with “authentic history,” and Friedrich Spiegel called the Kayanids, including Vištāspa, partly purely mythical, partly legendary, without a trace of anything historical.

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  • KAYĀNSĪH

    A. Panaino

    Pahlavi form of the name of a mythical sea, Av. Kąsaoiia-, connected in tradition with the Hāmun lake. According to Later Av. sources it is from the Kąsaoiia that the Saošiiaṇt Astuuat̰.ərəta- will rise. 

  • KAYFI SABZAVĀRI

    Sunil Sharma

    Persian poet, also known as Kayfi Sistāni and Kayfi Now-Mosalmān.

  • KAYHAN

    EIr.

    a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran under the aegis of Moṣṭafā Meṣbāḥzādeh (1908-2006) from 1942 until the 1979 Revolution. Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, it has been published under the patronage of the Islamic Republic’s supreme leader. Kayhan of London also was founded by Meṣbāḥzādeh in 1984 as a weekly newspaper; it has been published by his confidants as a monarchist newspaper for Iranians in Diaspora.

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  • KAYKĀVUS B. ESKANDAR

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    author of a famous Mirror for Princes, best known as the Qābus-nāma, although other, more general titles such as Naṣiḥat-nāma, or Pand-nāma, also occur in the sources. 

  • KAYKĀVUS B. HAZĀRASP

    Cross-reference

    See BADUSPANIDS.

  • ḴAYMA

    Cross-reference

    See TENTS.

  • KAYOMARṮ

    Cross-reference

    See GAYŌMART.

  • ḴAYRḴᵛĀH HERĀTI

    Farhad Daftary

    Nezāri Ismaʿili dāʿi, author, and poet (15th-16th centuries).

  • KAYSĀNIYA

    Sean W. Anthony

    occasionally referred to also as Moḵtāriya, the Shiʿite sectarian movement(s) emerging from the Kufan revolt of Moḵtār b. Abi ʿObayd Ṯaqafi in 66-67/685-87.

  • ḴAZʿAL KHAN

    Shahbaz Shahnavaz

    (Shaikh Ḵazʿal, also known as Moʿez-al-Salṭana, Sardār Aqdas), chieftain of the Banu Kaʿb tribe of Khuzestan (1861-1936).

  • KĀZARUNIYA

    Hamid Algar

    a Sufi order (ṭariqat) so named after Abu Esḥāq Kāzaruni, alternatively designated as Esḥāqiya, especially in Turkey, or more rarely as Moršediya.

  • KĀẒEM RAŠTI

    Armin Eschraghi

    (d. 1844), student and successor of Shaikh Aḥmad b. Zayn-al-Din Aḥsāʾi and head of the Šayḵi movement.  The main sources for Rašti’s biography are some of his own works which contain autobiographical information.

  • KĀẒEM RAŠTI, MALEK-AL-AṬEBBĀʾ

    Hormoz Ebrahimnejad

    one of the high-ranking traditional physicians in 19th-century Iran.

  • KĀẒEM, MUSĀ

    Cross-reference

    , Imam. See MUSĀ B. JAʿFAR (pending).

  • KAZEMAYN

    Meir Litvak

    a suburban town in the northwest of Baghdad and one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities in Iraq, known in Shiʿi Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿāliāt.

  • KĀẒEMI, ḤOSAYN

    Vida Nassehi-Behnam

    (1924-1996), painter. He was part of a group of painters who started a modern movement in painting in Persia. They opened the first art gallery, Apādānā, in Tehran (1949) where they offered courses in painting and organized lectures and exhibitions. It became also a meeting place for artists and intellectuals.

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  • ḴĀZENI, ABU’L-FATḤ

    Faiza Bancel

    astronomer, mathematician, and mechanist originally from the city of Marv in Khorasan.