Table of Contents

  • KAYĀNIĀN ix. Kauui Vištāspa, Kay Wištāsp, Kay Beštāsb/Goštāsb

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The name Vištāspa presumably means “he who gives the horses free rein” (víṣitāso áśvāḥ “horses let loose or given free rein”), which agrees with the description of Vištāspa as the prototypical winner of the chariot race in Yašt 5.132.

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  • KAYĀNIĀN x. The End of the Kayanids

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    In the Pahlavi texts. The Bundahišn only records that, when Wahman, son of Spandyād, came to the throne, Iran was a wasteland, and the Iranians were quarreling with one another.

  • KAYĀNIĀN xi. The Kayanids and the Kang-dez

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    According to the Pahlavi texts, Kay Siāwaxš built the Kang castle (Kang-diz) by miraculous power (Pahlavi Rivāyat: with his own hands, by means of the [Kavian] xwarrah and the might of Ohrmazd and the Amahrspands).

  • KAYĀNIĀN xii. The Kavian XˇARƎNAH

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The nature of the Avestan xᵛarənah and its three subtypes, the Aryan (airiiana), the “unseizable” (? axᵛarəta), and the Kavian (kāuuaiia).

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiii. Synchronism of the Kayanids and Near Eastern History

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The desire of the medieval historians to fit all the ancient narratives into one and the same chronological description of world history from the creation led them to coordinate the Biblical, Classical, and Iranian sources.

  • KAYĀNIĀN xiv. The Kayanids in Western Historiography

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Henry C. Rawlinson contrasted the “distorted and incomplete allusions to Jemshíd and the Kayanian monarchs” with “authentic history,” and Friedrich Spiegel called the Kayanids partly purely mythical, partly legendary.

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    A. Panaino

    Pahlavi form of the name of a mythical sea, Av. Kąsaoiia-, connected in tradition with the Hāmun lake. According to Later Av. sources it is from the Kąsaoiia that the Saošiiaṇt Astuuat̰.ərəta- will rise. 


    Sunil Sharma

    Persian poet, also known as Kayfi Sistāni and Kayfi Now-Mosalmān.



    a leading daily newspaper published in Tehran from 1942 until the 1979 Revolution. Since then, it has been published under the patronage of the Islamic Republic’s supreme leader. Kayhan of London was foundedin 1984 as a weekly newspaper; it has continued to be published as a monarchist newspaper for Iranians in Diaspora.

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    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    author of a famous Mirror for Princes, best known as the Qābus-nāma, although other, more general titles such as Naṣiḥat-nāma, or Pand-nāma, also occur in the sources. 






    See TENTS.





    Farhad Daftary

    Nezāri Ismaʿili dāʿi, author, and poet (15th-16th centuries).


    Sean W. Anthony

    occasionally referred to also as Moḵtāriya, the Shiʿite sectarian movement(s) emerging from the Kufan revolt of Moḵtār b. Abi ʿObayd Ṯaqafi in 66-67/685-87.


    Shahbaz Shahnavaz

    (Shaikh Ḵazʿal, also known as Moʿez-al-Salṭana, Sardār Aqdas), chieftain of the Banu Kaʿb tribe of Khuzestan (1861-1936).


    Hamid Algar

    a Sufi order (ṭariqat) so named after Abu Esḥāq Kāzaruni, alternatively designated as Esḥāqiya, especially in Turkey, or more rarely as Moršediya.



    Imam. See MUSĀ B. JAʿFAR (pending).


    Armin Eschraghi

    (d. 1844), student and successor of Shaikh Aḥmad b. Zayn-al-Din Aḥsāʾi and head of the Šayḵi movement.  The main sources for Rašti’s biography are some of his own works which contain autobiographical information.


    Hormoz Ebrahimnejad

    one of the high-ranking traditional physicians in 19th-century Iran.


    Meir Litvak

    a suburban town in the northwest of Baghdad and one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities in Iraq, known in Shiʿi Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿāliāt.


    Vida Nassehi-Behnam

    (1924-1996), painter. He was part of a group of painters who started a modern movement in painting in Persia. They opened the first art gallery, Apādānā, in Tehran (1949) where they offered courses in painting and organized lectures and exhibitions. It became also a meeting place for artists and intellectuals.

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    Faiza Bancel

    astronomer, mathematician, and mechanist originally from the city of Marv in Khorasan.


    Multiple Authors

    city and sub-province in the province of Fars, west of Shiraz. This entry is divided into the following three sections: i. Geography. ii. History. iii. Old Kazerun dialect.

  • KAZERUN i. Geography

    Jean Calmard

    Kazerun is located in the southwestern Zagros range, which is oriented northwest-southeast in the normal folding zone and is seismically active.  Kazerun comprises contrasting climates; there is a cold zone in the mountainous north, with summits up to 3,000 m, and a warm zone in the south, with elevations less than 2,000 m.

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  • KAZERUN ii. History

    Jean Calmard

    From late Safavid times, European travelers provided valuable information on Kazerun (variously spelled) and its region. 

  • KAZERUN iii. Old Kazerun Dialect

    ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī

    The old dialect of the city of Kazerun was commonly used by the local people up to around the 14th-15th centuries. 


    Habib Borjian

    Kāzeruni’s fortune was made through his investments in the textile industry, which had long been a major industry in Isfahan but had lost ground to British and Russian cotton imports.  Kāzeruni stood out among the nationalist merchants and landowners who launched new campaigns to revive Isfahan’s cotton production and textile industry.

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    Willem Floor

    title of the royal treasurer since the early Islamic period.

  • KĒD


    Pahlavi and Bactrian word with meanings ranging from “soothsayer” to “priest,” probably derived from OIran.


    Miklos Sarkozy

    (b. Szúnyog, Hungary, 1 December 1862; d. Áporka, Hungary, 28 December 1920), Hungarian orientalist, polymath, and bibliophile who devoted a major part of his studies to Persian literature.

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    (or Kalārdašt), see KALĀRESTĀQ.


    Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar

    a monumental novel of nearly three thousand pages in five volumes consisting of ten books published over the period 1978-84 by Maḥmud Dawlatābādi, the noted Iranian novelist and ardent social realist.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    American scholar of Indo-European studies, who specialized also in Old Persian studies. He went to Berlin and Munich universities to continue for two years his classical studies, including (apart from the languages) Greek epigraphy, history, and archeology.


    András Bodrogligeti

    (1909-1989), Hungarian poet and translator of Persian poetry. He was the son of a blacksmith and proud of his origins, claiming that the legacy of his father’s craftsmanship as a skilled artisan.


    Gen’ichi Tsuge

    a musical term denoting a guša, or a metric section within a guša, based on any dastgāh.


    Alain Cariou

    Because of the Chinese government program for urban development, Uighur neighborhoods are consistently demolished to make way for straight avenues and banal, modern buildings.  Moreover, the Chinese government is promoting the migration of Han Chinese.

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    Multiple Authors

    province of Iran located between Fars and Sistan va Balučestān; also the name of its principal city and capital.

  • KERMAN i. Geography

    Habib Borjian

    Kerman Province is situated in southeast Iran. It is divided into two distinct macroclimates, sardsir (cold) in the upland north and garmsir (warm) in the lowland south, generally speaking.

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  • KERMAN ii. Historical Geography

    Xavier de Planhol and Bernard Hourcade

    The Kerman basin, in which Kerman City is situated, is located at an elevation of about 1,700 m with land sloping very gently from northwest to southeast.  It is entirely surrounded by a series of high massifs.

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  • KERMAN iii. Population of the province, sub-province, and city

    Ḥabib-Allāh Zanjāni and Moḥammad-Ḥosayn Nejātiān

    In 1956, the total population of the province was around 789,000 persons (of whom, 127,624 then belonged to Bandar Abbas), while in the 2011 population and housing census, it had increased to nearly 2,939,000.

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  • KERMAN v. From the Islamic Conquest to the Coming of the Mongols

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    The Armenian geography written in the second half of the 8th century and traditionally attributed to Moses of Khoren places Kerman in the southern quarter of the Sasanian empire.

  • KERMAN vii. In the Safavid Period

    Rudi Matthee

    Kerman is one of the few places in Iran that had long generated local Persian-language chronicles, and the 17th century was no exception. 

  • KERMAN viii. Afsharid and Zand Period

    James M. Gustafson

    Between the fall of the Safavids and the rise of the Qajar dynasty (ca. 1722-94), Kerman maintained a measure of stability and security under local rulers despite the rise and fall of dynastic states across the Iranian plateau.

  • KERMAN ix. Qajar Period

    James M. Gustafson

    Kerman's geographical position on the periphery of the Qajar empire (1795-1925), was at the center of numerous significant developments in this important transitional period in Iran's history.

  • KERMAN xiii. Zoroastrians of 19th-Century Yazd and Kerman

    Janet Kestenberg Amighi

    The main focus of this entry is on the nature of pressures exerted on the Zoroastrians of Yazd and Kerman to convert away from their religion, and the Zoroastrian responses of both conversion and persistence during the 19th century. It will cover four themes: Muslim treatment of Zoroastrians and pressures to convert, Zoroastrian modes of resistance and submission, the Parsi contribution to Zoroastrian revivalism, and a comparison of Zoroastrian responses to Muslim pressures to convert versus responses to Bahai forms of proselytization.

  • KERMAN xiv. Jewish Community Of Kerman City

    Nahid Pirnazar and EIr

    In the late 18th century, according to the account of the Jewish community of Yazd compiled by Molla Aqābābā Damāvandi a century later, severe drought caused its members to move to Rafsanjān and Sirjān and the villages around Kerman. Thus the Jewish Quarter of nineteenth-century Kerman became mainly an offshoot of the community in Yazd.

  • KERMAN xv. Carpet Industry

    James M. Gustafson

    Since the late 19th century, Kerman’s hand-woven, knotted pile carpets are widely regarded as among the finest in the world by art historians and collectors for the quality of their materials and workmanship. 

  • KERMAN xvi. Languages

    Habib Borjian

    The province of Kerman is characterized by two indigenous languages, Persian in the mountainous north and Garmsiri in the lowland south, supplemented by the Median-type dialects spoken by the Zoroastrian, Jewish, and possibly Turkish residence of the city of Kerman.

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    Multiple Authors

    a province in western Iran; also the name of its principal city and capital.