Table of Contents

  • KANDAHAR vii. From 1973 to the Present

    Antonio Giustozzi

    Mohammad Daoud Khan took power in July 1973, his ban on party political activities hit Kandahar too.

  • ḴANDAQ

    Michael G. Morony

    a Persian loanword in Arabic meaning a trench or a moat (lit. “dug”), possibly also a wall or an enclosure.

  • KANGA, MANECK FARDOONJI

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    (1908-1988), Parsi scholar of Zoroastrianism and Iranian languages. He held the position of Secretary of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute in Bombay for 15 years and edited its Journal. He served as Professor of Avestan Studies at the University of Bombay. Kanga was also a member of the board of Ancient Studies at the University of Allahabad, and of the Vaidika Saṁśodhana Maṇḍala (Vedic Research Institute) at Pune.

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  • KANGARLU

    P. OBERLING

    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan and the Qom-Verāmin region of central Persia. 

  • KANGAVAR

    Wolfram Kleiss

    town in eastern Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, identical with a trace of the silk road. Isidorus of Charax (1st century CE) referred to it as Congobar and mentioned a temple of Anāhitā (Anaitis) there. The site has ruins of debated date and nature.

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  • KANGDEZ

    Pavel Lurje

    (lit. “Fortress of Kang,”), a mythical, paradise-like fortress in Iranian folklore. There are different and often contradictory descriptions of Kang, Kangdež and several similar place names in Pahlavi literature and the epics of the Islamic period.

  • KANI, ḤĀJ MOLLĀ ʿALI

    Hamid Algar

    Shiʿi scholar whose power and prominence in the affairs of Tehran for more than four decades earned him the semi-official title of raʾis al-mojtahedin (“chief of the mojtaheds”), as well as accusations of inordinate greed.

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  • KANJAKI

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    language mentioned in the 11th-century Turkish lexicon of Maḥmud al-Kāšḡari as being spoken in the villages near Kāšḡar.

  • ḴĀNOM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a title for highborn women in the pre-modern Turkish and Persian worlds. In early Islamic Turkish, it was used for a khan’s wife or a princess, hence as a higher title than begüm.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    an institute with a wide range of cultural, artistic, and educational activities for children and adolescents, founded in December 1965.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN i. Establishment of Kanun

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Kanun’s goal was to produce and offer support and services for children in better settings than the grim and austere school classrooms, namely, in newly built and colorful centers where children would be welcomed by their own specialized librarians and artistic guides. Here children could study or borrow books, view movies, and take art classes.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ii. Libraries

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    A children’s library, conceived by the founders of Kanun as a pilot project for future libraries, was approved, and construction began in 1965.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ii. Libraries

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    an institute with a wide range of cultural, artistic, and educational activities for children and adolescents, founded under the patronage of Queen (Shahbanou) Farah Pahlavi in December 1965.

  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN iii. Book Publishing

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Shirvanlu, rightly convinced that the few already known children’s writers were not the sole answer to Kanun’s children’s book project, approached many writers of adult literature—novelists, translators, dramatists, essayists in social sciences, and scholars in humanities—and invited them to try their hand in this new field.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN iv. International Film Festivals

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Many world-renowned puppet, animation, mixed live and animation style, feature, and documentary film artists and masters such as Hermina Tirlova, Raoul Serve, Saul Bass, Karel Zeman, Burt Hanstra, Jacques Tati, John Halas, Richard Williams, and Jiri Skolimovski were invited to include their films in competition or to participate as International Jury members for the festivals.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN v. Film Production: 1970-77

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Kanun productions were the first experience of film direction for a number of today’s best-known Iranian directors, including Abbas Kiarostami, Bahrām Beyzāʾi, Sohrab Šahid-ṯāleṯ, Moḥammad-Reżā Aṣlāni, Nāṣer Taqvāʾi, and Amir Nāderi. All internationally recognized Iranian animation film directors started their work at Kanun, and many have continued to cooperate with it.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN vi. Music and Sound Production

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    In less than eight years, thanks in no small part to the talent and perseverance of Aḥmadi and his small team, the Center for the Production of Records and Cassettes for Children and Young Adults (Markaz-e tahiye-ye navār va ṣafḥ-e barā-ye kudakān va nowjavānān) produced five collections of quality recordings.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN vii. Visual Arts Training Center

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    The impact of the Visual Arts Training Center on the preparation of youngsters who were interested in artistic domains should not be underestimated. Through this initiative, after the Revolution, an array of young artists were introduced to the Iranian public, and the work of many of them has been praised worldwide.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN viii. The Pioneers and Promoters

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Aḥmad-Reżā Aḥmadi, avant-garde poet, started as a writer for Kanun with the book “I have something to say that only you children would believe,” 1971. He was appointed as manager of the sound recording production section at the encouragement and behest of Kanun’s managing director in 1970. He became an promoter for Kanun’s music collections.

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  • KĀNUN-E PARVAREŠ-E FEKRI-E KUDAKĀN VA NOWJAVĀNĀN ix. From 1979 to 2009: An Overview

    Fereydoun Moezi Moghadam

    Due to Iran’s rapid urbanization and in order to cope with the increasing demands for cultural centers, Kanun needed to develop and to expand its centers.

  • KAPADIA, DINSHAH DORABJI

    Burzine K. Waghmar

    Parsi scholar and educator. He was promoted in 1919 as a commissioner of the Indian Educational Service and taught mathematics in Poona and Bombay.

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199).

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI i. Life

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    (1127-1186/1199), major Persian poet and prose writer.

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI ii. Works

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199). Ḵāqāni’s fame rests on his qaṣidas, of which, in Żiāʾ-al-Din Sajjādi’s edition, there are one hundred and thirty-two.

  • KĀR-NĀMA-YE BALḴ

    J. T . P. de Bruijn

    a short maṯnavi by Sanāʾi of Ghazna (d. 1131), containing panegyric as well as satirical verses addressed to, or describing, people from various layers of Ghaznavid society.

  • KĀR-NĀMAG Ī ARDAŠĪR Ī PĀBAGĀN

    C. G. CERETI

    short prose work written in Middle Persian. It narrates the Sasanian king Ardašīr I’s life story—his rise to the throne, battle against the Parthian king Ardawān, and conquest of the empire. 

  • KARABALGASUN

    Toshio Hayashi, Y. Yoshida

    or Khar Balgas “Black ruined city” in Mongolian. This entry consists of two sections: i. The site  ii. The inscription.

  • KARABALGASUN i. The Site

    Toshio Hayashi

    archeological site of a capital of the Uighur Khaghanate (second half of the 8th century to first half of the 9th century). Karabalgasun is located in the Orkhon valley, 320 km west of Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar), 30 km north of Karakorum.

  • KARABALGASUN ii. The Inscription

    Y. Yoshida

    The trilingual inscription at Karabalgasun, in Old Turkic, Sogdian, and Chinese, of the eighth Uighur qaghan in Mongolia commemorates the qaghan’s (Old Turkic ḵaḡan, qaḡan) own military achievements and those of his predecessors.

  • KARAFTO CAVES

    Hubertus von Gall

    an ensemble of artificially cut rock chambers dated to the 4th or 3rd century BCE, in Kordestān Province, 20 km west of Takab. The site is of considerable importance because of its Greek inscription, one of the very few examples preserved in situ in Persia.

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  • KARĀʾI

    P. Oberling

    a Turkic-speaking tribe of Azerbaijan, Khorasan, Kermān and Fārs.

  • KARAJ

    Multiple Authors

    a town in Tehran province, located 36 km west of the city of Tehran on the western bank of the Karaj River (lat 35° 46ʹ N, long 50° 49ʹ E; elev., 1,360 m).

  • KARAJ i. Modern City

    Bernard Hourcade

    The area of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age at Tepe Khurvin, and the Iron Age at Kalāk on the left bank of the Karaj River.

  • KARAJ ii. Population

    Habibollah Zanjani

    Since the 1976 census, when Tehran was no longer counted within the boundaries of Central (Markazi) province and formed its own province, Karaj has been one of its sub-provinces. Originally a relatively large sub-province, Karaj was reduced to its current size when its former townships of Sāvojbolāq, Šahriār, Rebāṭ Karim, and Naẓarābād gradually separated.

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  • KARAJ DAM

    Cross-reference

    See AMIR KABIR DAM (forthcoming online).

  • KARAJ RIVER

    Bernard Hourade

    the second major permanent river of the central Iranian plateau after the Zāyandarud river.

  • KARAKI

    Rula Jurdi Abisaab

    Nur-al-Din Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Ḥosayn b. ʿAbd-al-ʿĀli, known as Moḥaqqeq al-Ṯāni or Moḥaqqeq ʿAli (1464-1533), a major Imamite jurist.

  • KARĀMA

    Erik S. Ohlander

    “(saintly) marvel, wonder, or miracle” in Arabic (pl. karāmāt).

  • KARAPAN

    William Malandra

    (or Karpan), designation of members of a class of daivic priests opposed to the religion of Zarathustra.

  • KARBALA

    Meir Litvak

    a city in Iraq, situated about 90 km southwest of Baghdad. It is one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities (with Najaf, Kāẓemayn, and Sāmarrāʾ) in Iraq known in Shʿite Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿaliāt or ʿatabāt-e moqaddasa.

  • KÁRDAKES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    the name of a Persian military unit mentioned several times by Greek and Roman authors, nearly always in relation to the Achaemenid period (cf. Huyse, p. 199, n. 6).

  • KĀRGĀNRUD

    Cross-Reference

    the northernmost and largest of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān.

  • KARGAR, DARIUSH

    Forogh Hashabeiky and Behrooz Sheyda

    (1953-2012), Iranist, fiction writer, and journalist. Kargar’s later works of fiction, written in Sweden, participate in the more modern spectrum of writing in the twentieth century and are characterized by his experimentations with disrupted chronology, non-linear plots, and interrupted language reminiscent of stream of consciousness.

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  • KĀRGOZĀR

    Morteza Nouraei

    a term used from the early 19th century until the abolishment of capitulation (kāpitulāsion) in 1927 to refer specifically to an agent of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who was charged with regulating relations between Iranian subjects and foreigners.

  • KARIM DEVONA

    Keith Hitchins

    pen-name of Abdul-Karim Qurbon, Tajik folk poet (1878-1918).

  • KARIM KHAN ZAND

    John R. Perry

    (ca. 1705-1779), “The Wakil,” ruler of Persia (except Khorasan) from Shiraz during 1751-79. The Zand were a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of the northern Lors, ranging between the inner Zagros and the Hamadān plains, centered on the villages of Pari and Kamāzān in the vicinity of Malāyer.

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  • KĀRIZ i. Terminology

    Xavier de Planhol

    underground irrigation canals, also called qanāt. The kārēz conducts water from the level of an aquifer to the open air by means of simple gravity in order to distribute it to lower areas.

  • KĀRIZ ii. Technology

    Xavier de Planhol

    The technology of kārēz exploits a difference in grade between a tunnel and the groundwater table. The grade of the tunnel is less steep than the grade of the water table, so that the tunnel ends at an elevation distinctly higher than that of the water table. In Iran the average grade may be around 0.5 percent.

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  • KĀRIZ iii. Economic and Social Contexts

    Xavier de Planhol

    The major significance of the kārēz lies in its continuous discharge throughout the year. In contrast, irrigation systems that rely on surface water runoff can completely cease to discharge water during the dry season. The continuous discharge, however, needs be distinguished from a constant discharge. Significant seasonal variations can be observed.

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  • KĀRIZ iv. Origin and Dissemination

    Xavier de Planhol

    One very common technique is an underflow channel in a river valley. The underflow channel captures water from the shallow aquifer formed by seepage from the watercourse, whether it be intermittent or continuous. This technique is always subject to significant variations, because it depends on the surface flow.

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