Table of Contents

  • KALHOR, Mirzā Mohammad-Reżā

    Maryam Ekhtiar

    (1829-1892), one of the most prominent 19th-century Persian calligraphers, often compared to such great masters of nastaʿliq as Mir ʿAli Heravi and Mir ʿEmād Sayfi Qazvini.

  • ḴALIFA SOLṬĀN

    Rudi Matthee

    (1592/93-1654), grand vizier under Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588-1629) and then again under Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-66).

  • ḴALIL SOLṬĀN b. MIRĀNŠĀH b. TIMUR

    Beatrice Forbes Manz

    Timurid ruler (1405-09). He became active in the military on the Indian campaign in 1398-99 and played a prominent part in the seven-year campaign of 1399-1404.

  • ḴALIL, MOḤAMMAD EBRĀHIM

    Wali Ahmadi

    Afghan scribe, calligrapher, poet and historian. Ḵalil studied privately with his parents and excelled in the art of calligraphy, especially the nastaʿliq and šekasta styles.

  • ḴALIL-ALLĀH ŠAH

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    (or Sayyed) BORHĀN-AL-DIN (b. 1373-74, d. 1455-56), the only son of the Sufi master, Šāh Neʿmat-Allāh Wali of Kermān.

  • KALILA WA DEMNA

    Multiple Authors

    collection of didactic animal fables, with the jackals Kalila and Demna as two of the principal characters.  The story cycle originated in India between 500 BCE and 100 BC, and circulated widely in the Near East.

  • KALILA WA DEMNA i. Redactions and circulation

    Dagmar Riedel

    The circulation of Kalila wa Demna in Persian literature documents how Iran mediated the diffusion of knowledge between the Indian subcontinent and the Mediterranean. The oldest extant versions of the story cycle are preserved in Syriac and Arabic, and originate from the 6th and 8th century, respectively, as translations of a lost Middle Persian version.

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  • KALILA WA DEMNA ii. The translation by Abu’l-Maʿāli Naṣr-Allāh Monši

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Naṣr-Allāh’s Persian version of the Kalila wa Dimna is not a translation in the strict sense of the term, but a literary creation in its own right. 

  • KALILA WA DEMNA iii. ILLUSTRATIONS

    Bernard O’Kane

    a collection of didactic animal fables, with the jackals Kalila and Demna as two of the principal characters.

  • ḴALILI, ʿABBĀS

    Hasan Mirabedini

    After the declaration of a general amnesty in Iraq, Abbas began working as an Arabic translator for Raʿd, a newspaper published by Sayyed Żiāʿ-al-Din Ṭabāṭabāʾi. Afterwards, with the help of Sayyed Żiāʾ, he was put in charge of the Baladiya newspaper. He was also involved with Bahār, a Persian literary, scientific, and political monthly.

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  • ḴALILI, ḴALIL-ALLĀH

    Wali Ahmadi

    Ḵalili was born to Moḥammad Ḥosayn Khan Ḵalili, a state treasurer affiliated with the court of Amir Ḥabib-Allāh Khan. He was greatly interested in scholarship, an interest which he inculcated in his son. Upon the murder of the Amir on 19 February 1919, Mostawfi-al-Mamālek was arrested and swiftly executed, and his land and possessions were confiscated.

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  • KALIM KĀŠĀNI

    Daniela Meneghini

    (b. ca. 1581-85, d. 1651), Persian poet and one of the leading exponents of the “Indian style” (sabk-e hendi).

  • KALIMI

    Amnon Netzer

    the word used to refer to the Jews of Iran in modern Persian usage. The word “kalimi” derives from the Arabic root KLM meaning to address, to speak, but the appellation in this context is derived directly from the specific epithet given to the prophet Moses as Kalim-Allāh.

  • ḴALIQ LĀHURI

    Stefano Pello

     Indo-Persian poet of the 18th-century, probably a Sikh.

  • ḴALḴĀLI, Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥim

    Hushang Ettehad and EIr

    Ḵalḵāli remained, to the end of his life, a loyal member of the democratic current and a close confidant of Sayyed Ḥasan Taqizādeh, the leader of the Social Democratic Party (Ferqa-ye ejtemāʿiyun-e ʿāmmiyun) in the First Majles (1906-08), and later of Iran’s Democrat Party (Ferqa-ye demokrāt-e Irān) in the Second Majles.

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  • ḴĀLKUBI

    Willem Floor

    (or ḵāl kubidankabud zadan “tattooing”), that is, making a permanent mark on the skin by inserting a pigment, is one of the oldest methods of body ornamentation.  The earliest evidence of tattoos in the Iranian culture area is the almost completely tattooed body of a Scythian chief in Pazyryk Mound

  • KALLA-PĀČA

    Etrat Elahi

    a traditional dish made of sheep’s head and trotters and cooked over low heat, usually overnight. The combination of one sheep’s head and four trotters is called a set of kalla-pāča.

  • KALLAJUŠ

    Etrat Elahi & EIr.

    an old Iranian dish, also pronounced kālajuškālājuškaljuš in different parts of Iran. The compound term kāljuš is composed of kālmeaning unripe, connoting cooked rare, and juš (boiling).

  • ḴĀLU

    Pierre Oberling

    a small Turkic tribe of Kermān province.  According to the Iranian Army files (1957), this tribe once lived in the vicinity of Bardsir and Māšiz, southwest of Kermān.

  • KALURAZ

    TADAHIKO OHTSU

    Almost all the objects excavated by Hakemi are now kept in Iran National Museum (Tehran). They are exhibited and open to the public. Since they had been archeologically reported only with photographs, in 2005 Japan-Iran joint researchers carried out new archeological studies for about 50 objects from the Kaluraz site.

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  • KAMĀL ḴOJANDI

    Paul Losensky

    (ca. 1320-1401), Persian poet and Sufi also known as Shaikh Kamāl.

  • KAMĀL PĀŠĀ-ZĀDA, ŠAMS-AL-DIN AḤMAD

    T. Yazici

    (1468-1534), prolific Ottoman scholar, author of several works in and on Persian. A native of Edirne, he studied under the local muftiMollā Loṭfi, and subsequently taught at the madrasas of Edirne, Uskup (Skoplje) and Istanbul.

  • KAMAL, REZA

    Cross-Reference

    (better known as Sharzad), dramatist and translator. See SHARZAD.

  • KAMĀL-AL-DIN EṢFAHĀNI

    David Durand-Guédy

    poet from Isfahan, noted for his mastery of the panegyric. His full name is given by Ebn al-Fowaṭi as Kamāl-al-Din Abu’l-Fażl Esmāʿil b. Abi Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh b. ʿAbd-al-Razzāq al-Eṣfahāni.

  • KAMĀL-AL-DIN ḤOSAYN

    Colin Paul Mitchell

    ḤĀFEŻ-E HARAVI, a prominent Safavid calligrapher during the reign of Shah Tˈahmāsp I (r. 1524-76).

  • KAMĀL-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḠAFFĀRI

    A. Ashraf with Layla Diba

    (ca. 1859–1940), Iranian painter of the European academic style during the late Qajar and early Pahlavi periods. He descended from a family that had produced a number of artists since the Afsharid period, including his paternal great-grandfather, Mirzā Abu’l-Ḥasan Mostawfi, a court painter during the reign of Nāder Shah Afshar (r. 1736-47) and Karim Khan Zand (r. 1750-79).

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  • KAMĀLI BOḴĀRĀʾI

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    , ʿAmid Kamāl-al-Din, a court poet, musician, and calligrapher at the court of Sultan Sanjar, the Saljuqid king (r. 1097-1118), during his rule in Khorasan.

  • KAMĀNČA

    Stephen Blum

    The kamānča has a spherical sound cavity of mulberry or walnut wood, covered with sheepskin. Most instruments have four steel strings and are played with a horsehair bow. As the name of the Iraqi joza suggests, its sound cavity is made of coconut, covered with sheepskin or fish skin.

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  • KĀMI AḤMED ÇELEBI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlī

    Ottoman scholar, judge, writer, and translator. He was born in Edirne (his birth date is unknown) and known as Mesnevi-hānzāde (Maṯnawi-ḵvānzāda).

  • KĀMI MEHMED-I KARAMĀNI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlī

    Ottoman scholar, judge, poet, and translator. He was born in Karaman (Qaramān) in central Anatolia.

  • ḴAMĪS DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E ḴAMĪS.

  • KĀMRĀN B. SHAH MAḤMUD

    Christine Nöelle-Karimi

    Sadōzāy ruler of Herat (r. 1826-42). His career coincided with the waning of Sadōzāy power and the rise of the Moḥammadzāy dynasty in the 1820s.

  • KĀMRĀN MIRZĀ

    Sunil Sharma

    In his Haft eqlim, Aḥmad Amin-Rāzi devotes a long section to Kāmrān Mirzā in which he extols the prince’s bravery, generosity, and piety. The historian Badāʾuni also praises him as a courageous and learned man, renowned as a poet, but who was led to ruin by excessive drinking, while Abu’l-Fażl portrays him as a treacherous ingrate.

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  • ḴAMSA OF NEẒĀMI

    Domenico Parrello

    the quintet of narrative poems for which Neẓāmi Ganjavi (1141-1209) is universally acclaimed.

  • ḴAMSA TRIBE

    Pierre Oberling

    a tribal confederacy formed in the 19th century comprising five large tribes in Fārs province.

  • ḴAMSA-ye AMIR ḴOSROW

    Sunil Sharma

    a quintet of poems in the mathnawi form written by Amir Ḵosrow between 1298 and 1302, as a response to Neẓāmi’s immensely popular Panj ganj (Five Treasures).

  • ḴAMSA-ye JAMĀLI

    Paola Orsatti

    a suite of five mathnawis, composed in response to the Ḵamsa by Neẓāmi (1141-1209). This Ḵamsa exists in a unique manuscript in the India Office Library, London.

  • KAMSARAKAN

    C. Toumanoff

    Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the Kāren Pahlav, one of the seven great houses of Iran claiming Arsacid origin.

  • Ḵān-e Ārezu, Serāj-al-din ʿAli

    Prashant Keshavmurthy

    (1688-1756), a Persian-language philologist, lexicographer, literary critic and poet from North India.

  • ḴĀNĀ QOBĀDI

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek and Parwin Mahmoudweyssi

    (fl. ca.1700-1759 or 1778), Gurāni poet and one of the major members of the school of Gurāni poetry that is said to have been founded by Yusof Yaskā.

  • ḴĀNA-YE EDRISIHĀ

    SOHEILA SAREMI

    Ḵāna-ye Edrisihā is told from the alternating perspectives of four people: Mrs. Edrisi, symbol of a lost aristocracy; her daughter Laqā, trapped in a tangled web of old beliefs, traditions, and customs; her intellectual grandson Vahhāb, living a miserable life in an ocean of books; and Yāvar, the faithful servant, living in past memories.

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  • KANAF

    Bahram Grami

    (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), an annual herbaceous plant of the Malvaceae family, yielding a soft fiber from the stem bark. Its fiber is used primarily for making gunnysacks and burlap. The first gunny mill (guni bāfi) in Persia was established in 1933 in Rašt by the private sector.

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  • ḴĀNAQĀH

    Gerhard Böwering and Matthew Melvin-Koushki

    an Islamic institution and physical establishment, principally reserved for Sufi dervishes to meet, reside, study, and assemble and pray together as a group in the presence of a Sufi master (Arabic, šayḵ, Persian, pir), who is teacher, educator, and leader of the group.

  • KANDAHAR

    Multiple Authors

    the second most important city in the country and the capital of Kandahar province. This entry is divided into seven parts: i. Historical geography to 1979.  ii. Pre-Islamic monuments and remains. iii. Early Islamic period.  iv. From the Mongol invasion through the Safavid era.  v. In the 19th century.  vi. 20th century, 1901-73.  vii. From 1973 to the present.

  • KANDAHAR i. Historical Geography to 1979

    Xavier de Planhol

    The oasis clearly was destined to give rise to a major city that would control these rich lands with their grain fields, orchards, and gardens and manage the irrigation system they required. This urban center naturally was situated near the top of the alluvial cone, where the Arḡandāb river runs from the mountains.

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  • KANDAHAR ii. Pre-Islamic Monuments and Remains

    Gérard Fussman

    The ancient city of Kandahar lay along the Qaytul ridge, west of the modern city and was emptied of its population by Nāder Shah in 1738.

  • KANDAHAR iii. Early Islamic Period

    Minoru Inaba

    Kandahar and its surroundings have been an important junction connecting Iran and India since ancient times.

  • KANDAHAR iv. From The Mongol Invasion Through the Safavid Era

    Rudi Matthee and Hiroyuki Mashita

    There are various reasons why, despite the manifest weaknesses of the Safavid army, Kandahar surrendered to the Safavids.

  • KANDAHAR v. In the 19th Century

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E), the second most important in the country and the capital of Kandahar province.

  • KANDAHAR vi. 20th Century, 1901-73

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E). Kandahar expanded substantially during the second half of the 20th century by attracting rural labor and by developing new residential quarters (šahr-e naw) and public buildings.