Table of Contents

  • GANDHĀRA

    Willem Vogelsang

    (OPers. Gandāra), a province of the Persian empire under the Achaemenids. The name of Gandhāra or Gandhārī occurs in ancient Indian texts as the name of a people.

  • GANDHĀRAN ART

    B. A. Litvinsky

    : Iranian contribution and Iranian connections. The region of Gandhāra attained its peak of prosperity in the Kushan period (1st to 3rd centuries CE), when it became one of the strongholds of Buddhism.

  • GĀNDHĀRĪ LANGUAGE

    Richard Salomon

    The language of ancient Gandhāra, the area around the Peshawar Valley in the modern North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, lying near the border of the Indian and Iranian linguistic areas.

  • GANDOM

    Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin

    “wheat,”  both the plant and the grain. Wheat bread has been the staple of local diets throughout Iranian plateau for millennia. A very broad range of bread wheat varieties has traditionally been grown in the Iranian lands, especially in Afghanistan.

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  • GANDOMAK, TREATY OF

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    an agreement between Amir Moḥammad-Yaʿqub of Afghanistan (r. February to October 1879) and Major Pierre Louis Napolıon Cavagnari, representing the British Government of India.

  • GĀNEMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GANG DEŽ

    Cross-Reference

    See KANGDEŽ.

  • ḠANĪ (article 1)

    G. L. Tikku and EIr

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69), one of the most celebrated poets of Kashmir who wrote in the Indian Style (sabk-e hendī).

  • ḠANI (article 2)

    Prashant Keshavmurthy

    Pen name of Mollā MOḤAMMAD-ṬĀHER KAŠMĪRĪ (1630-69). He practiced the “Speaking Anew” (tāza-guʾyi) stylistics of the ḡazal that had arisen across the Persian world in the early 1500s.

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  • ḠANĪ, QĀSEM

    Abbas Milani

    Qasem Gani was a prolific writer and, during his many years abroad, corresponded with several eminent figures of the time. His diaries, notebooks, and letters have been compiled and edited in twelve volumes under the general supervision of his son, Cyrus Ghani.

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  • ḠANĪMAT KONJĀHĪ

    Arif Naushahi

    Persian poet from the Indian subcontinent, famous for composing Nīrang-e ʿešq (d. ca 1713).

  • ḠANĪZĀDA, MAḤMŪD

    Hassan Javadi

    b. Mīrzā Ḡanī Dīlmaqānī, liberal journalist, historian, and poet (1879-1936).

  • GANJ DAREH TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See ECBATANA.

  • GANJ-ʿALĪ KHAN

    Mohammad-Ebrahim Bastani Parizi

    a military leader and governor of Kermān, Sīstān, and Qandahār under Shah ʿAbbās I (996-1038/1588-1629). 

  • GANJ-E ARŠADĪ

    S. H. Askari

    An Indo-Persian collection of sayings (malfūẓāt) of the Češtī saint of Jaunpour Aršad Badr-al-Ḥaqq (1047-1113/1637-1701).

  • GANJ-E BĀDĀVARD

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    (the treasure brought by the wind), name of one of the eight treasures of the Sasanian Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628 C.E.) according to most Persian sources.

  • GANJ-E ŠAKAR, Farid-al-Din Masʿud

    Gerhard Böwering

    Popularly known as Bābā Farid, a major Shaikh of the Češtīya mystic order, born in the last quarter of the 6th/12th century in Kahtwāl near Moltān, Punjab.

  • GANJ-E ŠĀYAGĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement

  • GANJ-NĀMA

    Stuart C. Brown

    (lit. treasure book), location in a pass at an altitude of about 2,000 m across the Alvand Kūh leading westward to Tūyserkān, 12 km southwest of Hamadān.

  • GANJA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (Ar. Janza), the Islamic name of a town in the early medieval Islamic province of Arrān (the classical Caucasian Albania, Armenian Alvankʿ).

  • GANJA, TREATY OF

    Cross-Reference

    See NĀDER SHAH.

  • GANJAFA

    Cross-Reference

    See CARD GAMES.

  • GANJAʾĪ, REŻĀ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    Ganjaʾī owes his fame to his publication of the politico-satirical weekly Bābā Šamal in 1943-45 and 1947, which became one of the most popular satirical journals in the history of journalism in Persia. Thereafter, most of his colleagues, journalists, writers, and even public figures addressed him as “Bābā Šamal.”

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  • GANJAK

    Cross-Reference

    See GANZAK.

  • GANJĪNA-YE FONŪN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a biweekly magazine published in Tabrīz for a year (1903-04). It was the first scholarly Persian periodical published in Persia.

  • GANZABARA

    Matthew W. Stolper

    (treasurer), title of provincial and sub-provincial financial administrators in the Achaemenid empire, extended to workers attached to Achaemenid treasuries.

  • GANZAK

    Mary Boyce

    a town of Achaemenid foundation in Azerbaijan. The name means “treasury” and is a Median form (against Pers. gazn-), adopted in Persian administrative use.

  • GAOTƎMA

    Bernfried Schlerath

    an Avestan proper name only attested in Yt. 13.16: “An eloquent man will be born, who makes his words heard in verbal contests, ... victorious over the defeated Gaotəma.”

  • ḠĀR

    Ezzat O. Negahban

    (cave) and Stone Age cave dwellers in Iran. Caves and rock shelters were particularly attractive living places for the hunter gatherers of the early Paleolithic period. The geographic situation of the Iranian Plateau with its bordering mountain system meant that there were many cave sites which would have been suitable for early cave dwelling man.

  • GARAMAIOI

    Cross-Reference

    See BĒT GARMĒ.

  • ḠARB-ZADEGĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḠARČESTĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    name of a region in early Islamic times, situated to the north of the upper Harīrūd and the Paropamisus range and on the head waters of the Moṟḡāb.

  • GARCIN DE TASSY

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GARDANE MISSION

    Jean Calmard

    (1807-9), a diplomatic and military project between France and Persia which represented Napoleon’s last attempt to realize his Oriental ambitions. From late 1795, Persia became part of French projects against British India. From the renewal of Franco-Ottoman relations (June 1802), he sought information on Persia.

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  • GARDEN

    Multiple Authors

    referring to a garden estate, intended primarily for pleasure rather than permanent residence or production of crops, formally laid out, usually incorporating architectural elements, such as ornamental pools, gate-houses, and pavilions.

  • GARDEN i. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Mehrdad Fakour

    Since the first millenium B.C.E., the garden has been an integral part of Persian architecture, be it imperial or vernacular.

  • GARDEN ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Lisa Golombek

    Donald Wilber’s study of the Persian garden remains the most comprehensive, to which should be added the articles by Ettinghausen and Pinder-Wilson in the proceedings of the Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the Islamic Garden.

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  • GARDEN iii. INFLUENCE OF PERSIAN GARDENS IN INDIA

    Howard Crane

    Traces of Sultanate period gardens in the Persian style survive around Delhi in the citadel (Kōṭlā) of the Tughluqid Fīrūzšāh III (1351-88) and at Vasant Vihar (14th century). Mughal landscape architecture, which was characterized by terraced sites, čahārbāḡ  plans, and raised walks, is perhaps most renowned for its dramatic and inventive use of moving water.

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  • GARDEN iv. BOTANICAL GARDENS

    Borhan Riazi

    In Persia there are only three botanical gardens (bāḡ-e gīāh-šenāsī) in the exact scientific sense of this term.

  • GARDEN vi. IN PERSIAN ART

    Lisa Golombek

    For the decorative arts, the “garden carpet” is the quintessential re-creation of the garden, while paintings depict the garden as a setting for events. Vegetal motifs as ornament may be understood as generic allusions to the garden. In special circumstances, these allusions may be viewed as allusions to paradise themes.

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  • GARDĪZ

    Daniel Balland

    (Gardēz), a city in the Solaymān Mountains of eastern Afghanistan, 122 km south of Kabul. The city is situated at 2,300 m above sea-level, in a large intramountainous depression watered by the upper course of the Rūd-e Gardīz.

  • GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, Persian historian of the early 5th/11th century. He was clearly connected with the Ghaznavid court and administration and close to the sultans.

  • GARDŌY

    Cross-Reference

    sister of Bahrām Čōbīn. See BAHRĀM (2) vii.

  • GARGAR RIVER

    Cross-Reference

    See KĀRŪN RIVER.

  • GARLIC

    Etrat Elahi

    or allium sativum; a species in the onion family Alliaceae used as an ingredient in a variety of Persian dishes mainly as a condiment.

  • GARMAPADA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of the fourth month (June-July) of the Old Persian calendar.

  • GARMSĀR

    Bernard Hourcade

    a region (Qešlāq and Garmsār) in the province of Semnān situated beyond the Caspian Gates, known particularly as a stopover on the great road to Khorasan.

  • GARMSĪR AND SARDSĪR

    Xavier de Planhol

    lit. "warm zones and cold zones"; two terms identifying regional entities that form a major geographical contrast deeply affecting the popular conscience in Persia.

  • GARŌDMĀN

    William W. Malandra

    the Pahlavi name for heaven and paradise.

  • GARRETT COLLECTION

    Kambiz Eslami

    one of the finest collections of Near Eastern manuscripts, bequeathed to the Princeton University Library by Robert Garrett (1875-1961), a graduate and a trustee of the university.