Table of Contents

  • ALA-FIRENG

    Cross-Reference

    See ALĀFRANK.

  • ALĀFRANK

    D. O. Morgan

    or ALA-FIRENG, the eldest son of the Il-khan Geiḵatu (r. 690-94/1291-95).

  • ʿALĀʾI, ŠOʿĀʿ-ALLĀH

    Firuz Kazemzadeh

    (1899-1984), prominent government official and a leading Bahai.

  • ALAK-DOLAK

    H. Javadi

    the game of tipcat, played for centuries in Iran, Afghanistan, and surrounding countries.

  • ʿĀLAM II, SHAH

    S. S. Alvi

    Mughal emperor (1173-1253/1759-1806).

  • ʿALAM KHAN

    J. R. Perry

    viceroy of the Afsharid state of Khorasan, 1161-68/1748-54.  

  • ʿALAM VA ʿALĀMAT

    J. Calmard, J. W. Allan

    In both Arabic and Persian, the word ʿalam conveys various senses connected with the general meaning of a distinctive sign or mark. In Persian the word had early carried the meaning of ensign and of standard or flag. The same meanings may also be rendered by the word ʿalāma, which derives from the same root.

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  • AʿLAM, HUŠANG

    Mehran Afshari and EIr

    (1928-2007), scholar of the history of science. 

  • ʿALAM, Moḥammad Ebrāhim

    Hormoz Davarpanah

    (1881-1944), one of the most eminent local magnates and landowners of the late Qajar and early Pahlavi period.

  • AʿLAM, MOẒAFFAR

    Baqer Aqeli

    Sardār Enteṣār (1882-1973), provincial governor, minister of foreign affairs, military minister plenipotentiary. 

  • AʿLAM-AL-DAWLA

    cross reference

    See ṮAQAFĪ, ḴALĪL KHAN.

  • ʿALAM-AL-HODĀ

    W. Madelung

    leading Imamite scholar, man of letters, and naqīb (syndic) of the Talibids in Baghdad.

  • ʿĀLAM-E NESVĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    a magazine founded in Mīzān 1299 Š./September 1920, one of the earliest periodicals published by and for women.

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ʿABBĀSĪ

    R. M. Savory

    a Safavid chronicle written by Eskandar Beg Monšī (1560-1632). 

  • ʿĀLAMĀRĀ-YE ŠĀH ESMĀʿĪL

    R. McChesney

    an anonymous narrative of the life of Shah Esmāʿīl (r. 907-30/1501-24), the founder of the Safavid dynasty in Iran.

  • ʿALĀMĀT-E ŻOHŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See APOCALYPTIC.

  • ALAMŪT

    B. Hourcade

    Until the agrarian reform, the villages of the valleys were dominated by large land-owners residing in Ṭālaqān, Qazvīn or Tehran; only the villages of shepherds at high altitudes belonged to their inhabitants. Most of the villages are situated on the slopes of the right bank of the valley, exposed to the south and sheltered from floods.

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  • ALAMŪT DIALECTS

    Cross-Reference

    See QAZVĪN DIALECTS.

  • ALANS

    V. I. Abaev, H. W. Bailey

    an ancient Iranian tribe of the northern (Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, Massagete) group, known to classical writers from the first centuries CE.

  • ĀLĀT

    F. M. Kotwal and J. W. Boyd

    “utensils,” for Parsis the “sacred apparatus” employed in Zoroastrian rituals. 

  • ALAVI, BOZORG

    Ḥasan Mirʿābedini

    (1904-1997), leftist writer and one of the most noted Persian novelists of the 20th century, whose works were banned in Iran from 1953 to 1979.

  • ʿALAWAYH

    D. M. Dunlop

    AL-AʿSAR (“the Left-handed”), a noted singer at the ʿAbbasid court under Hārūn al-Rašīd and his successors, ca. 184-230/800-54.

  • ʿALAWĪ

    W. Kadi

    the nesba used to denote descendants, political states, or sects connected with one or another ʿAli; more particularly, it is employed to refer to a Shiʿite sect centered today in Syria.

  • ʿALAWĪ, ABD-AL-KARĪM

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-KARĪM ʿALAVĪ.

  • ʿALAWĪ, AḤMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See AḤMAD ʿALAWĪ.

  • ʿALAWĪS

    Cross-Reference

    OF ṬABARESTĀN, DAYLAMĀN, AND GĪLĀN. See ʿALIDS.

  • ʿALAWĪYAT AL-AʿSAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALAWAYH.

  • ĀLBĀLŪ

    A. Parsa

    (or ĀLŪBĀLŪ), sour cherry (Cerasus vulgaris), a tree of western Asia and eastern Europe.

  • ALBANIA

    M. L. Chaumont

    an ancient country in the Caucasus (for Albania in Islamic times, see Arrān). 

  • ALBORZ

    W. Eilers, M. Boyce, M. Bazin, E. Ehlers, B. Hourcade

    The older name of the range is unknown; perhaps, however, the Assyrian name Bikni designated Mt. Damāvand, the volcanic cone northeast of Tehran. In the Sasanian period part of the region may have been known by the Middle Persian Padišxwār-gar. Ferdowsī in the Šāh-nāma refers to the Alborz mountains as though they lay in India.

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  • ALBORZ COLLEGE

    Y. Armajani

    an American Presbyterian missionary institution in Tehran; starting as a grade school in 1873, it grew to a junior college in 1924 and an accredited liberal arts college by 1928. In 1940 it was closed and its property bought by the government of Iran.

  • ALBUQUERQUE, ALFONSO DE

    J. Aubin

    (ca. 1460-1515), admiral in the Indian Ocean (1504, 1506-08), second governor of Portuguese India (1509-15), a great conqueror, and the real founder of the Portuguese empire in the Orient.

  • ALCHASAI

    J. P. Asmussen

    a sectarian in the early Christian Church, 1st-2nd centuries CE, in the time of Trajan. 

  • ĀLČĪ

    D. O. Morgan

    (“sealer”), a Turkish term (from āl “red seal”) designating an il-khanid chancery official.

  • ALDANMIŠ KÄVAKEB

    S. Soucek

    Azeri Turkish title of a narrative by Āḵūndzāda (1812-78).

  • ʿĀLEMPUR, Moḥyi-al-Din

    Habib Borjian

    (Muhiddin Olimpur/Olimov), Tajik journalist, photographer, and intellectual figure who was instrumental in strengthening cultural ties among Persianate societies (1945-1995).

  • ALESSANDRI

    A. M. Piemontese

    (d. after 1595), Venetian secretary and diplomat, author of an important report on Safavid Persia.

  • ALEXANDER OF LYCOPOLIS

    G. Widengren

    apparently a Neoplatonic philosopher living in Egypt about 300 CE.

  • ALEXANDER THE GREAT

    P. Briant

    (356-323 B.C.). Ascending the throne of Macedonia on the assassination of his father Philip II in 336, Alexander quickly took up Philip’s grand scheme to land an army in Asia and “liberate the Greek cities from the Achaemenid yoke;” but from the first his territorial ambitions appear to have reached beyond the Mediterranean horizon.

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  • ALEXANDER THE GREAT ii. In Zoroastrian Tradition

    F. M. Kotwal and P. G. Kreyenbroek

    heritage of the Sasanian period includes two widely divergent storylines about Alexander, both of which were presumably transmitted by Zoroastrians and can therefore be labelled “Zoroastrian.”

  • ALEXANDER, PRINCE

    G. Bournoutian

    (known in Persian as ESKANDAR MĪRZĀ), pro-Persian member of the royal family of Georgia (b. 1770, d. after 1830).

  • ALEXANDRIA

    P. Leriche

    general designation of cities whose foundation is credited to Alexander the Great (356-23 B.C.).

  • ALEXANDROPOLIS

    P. Leriche

    name of a number of cities. According to certain historians, these cities were founded after Alexander’s death; others call some of these same cities Alexandria.

  • ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA

    Ch. Pellat

    “One thousand nights and one night,” Arabic title of the world-famous collection of tales known in English as The Arabian Nights

  • ALFARIC, PROSPER

    H. C. Puech

    (1876-1955), French historian of religions.  

  • ALFĪYA VA ŠALFĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    name given to illustrated books, in particular one by Azraqī, describing various kinds of sexual relationships between men and women. See AZRAQI.

  • ʿALĪ TABRĪZĪ (calligrapher)

    P. P. Soucek

    (or MĪR ʿALĪ TABRĪZĪ), 8th/14th century calligrapher who is often credited with the invention of the nastaʿlīq script.

  • ʿALĪ ʿAJAMĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ, ḴᵛĀJA.

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR

    J. Calmard

    Imam Ḥosayn’s eldest son, killed at the age of 18, 19, or 25 at the battle of Karbalā on the day of ʿĀšūrā (10 Moḥarram 61/10 October 680).

  • ʿALĪ AKBAR ḤOSAYNĪ ARDESTĀNĪ

    K. A. Nizami

    Indo-Muslim taḏkera writer, remembered solely for his unpublished Maǰmaʿ al-awlīāʾ, an encyclopedia of Sufi saints compiled in 1043/1633-34 and dedicated to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-68/1628-58).