Table of Contents

  • AḤMAD NEHĀVANDĪ

    D. Pingree

    2nd/8th century ʿAbbasid astronomer.  

  • AḤMAD RODAWLAVĪ

    B. B. Lawrence

    early Muslim saint of the Ṣāberīya Češtīya (d. 837/1434.

  • AḤMAD ṢĀḠĀNĪ

    D. Pingree

    one of the many astronomers who worked for the Buyids in Baghdad in the 4th/10th century.

  • AḤMAD SERHENDĪ (1)

    Y. Friedmann

    Shaikh (1564-1624), outstanding Mughal mystic and prolific writer on Sufi themes. 

  • AHMAD SERHENDI (2)

    Demetrio Giordani

    Shaikh (1564-1624), Indian Sufi known as Mojadded-e alf-e Ṯāni, the Renovator of the second millennium (of Islam).

  • AḤMAD SHAH DORRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN X. POLITICAL HISTORY.

  • AḤMAD SHAH QĀJĀR

    M. J. Sheikh-ol-Islami

    (r. 1909-1925), the seventh and last ruler of the Qajar dynasty.

  • AḤMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ghaznavid official and vizier, d. ca. 434/1043.

  • AḤMAD SOLṬĀN AFŠĀR

    R. M. Savory

    Qizilbāš amir in the Safavid service.  

  • AḤMAD TABRĪZĪ

    İ. Aka

    Persian poet (first half of the 8th/14th century).

  • AḤMAD TAKŪDĀR

    P. Jackson

    third il-khan of Iran (r. 680-83/1282-84), seventh son of Hülegü.

  • AḤMAD TŪNĪ

    J. van Ess

    Karrāmī theologian who lived about 400/1010.  

  • AḤMAD YĀDGĀR

    Hameed-ud-Din

    10th/16th century historian of the Afghans in India.

  • AḤMAD, NEẒĀM-AL-DIN

    Erika Glassen

    vizier and amir under the Timurids (d. 912/1507).

  • AḤMAD-E ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD

    Cross-Reference

    See AḤMAD ŠĪRĀZĪ.

  • AḤMAD-E JĀM

    H. Moayyad

    a Conservative Sufi with unreserved loyalty to the Šarīʿa (1049 -1141).

  • AḤMAD-E ḴĀNI

    F. Shakely

    (1061-1119/1650-1707), a distinguished Kurdish poet, mystic, scholar, and intellectual who is regarded by some as the founder of Kurdish nationalism.

  • AHMADABAD

    L. A. Desai

    Major city of Gujarat state in western India and a former center of Persian culture.

  • AḤMADĀVAND

    P. Oberling

    a small, sedentary Kurdish tribe of western Iran.

  • AHMADNAGAR

    Z. A. Desai

    major city and province in the state of Maharashtra in western India, founded about 900/1495 by Malek Aḥmad Neẓām-al-molk, a Bahmanī governor, on the site where he had earlier won a battle against his sovereign’s forces.

  • AḤMADNAGARĪ, ʿABD-AL-NABĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-NABĪ.

  • AḤMADPURĪ, GOL MOḤAMMAD

    K. A. Nizami

    (d. 1243/1827), a Panjabi saint and Češtī hagiographer.

  • AḤMADZĪ

    C. M. Kieffer

    “descendants of Aḥmad” (sing. Aḥmadzay), a Paṧtō clan and tribal name.

  • AḤRĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or BANU’L-AḤRĀR), in Arabic literally “the free ones,” a name applied by the Arabs at the time of the Islamic conquests to their Persian foes in Iraq and Iran.

  • AḤRĀR, ḴᵛĀJA ʿOBAYDALLĀH

    J. M. Rogers

    (806-96/1404-90), influential Naqšbandī of Transoxania.

  • AHRIMAN

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    "demon," God’s adversary in the Zoroastrian religion.

  • AHRIŠWANG

    B. Schlerath

    a learned transcription of the Avestan nominative Ašiš vaŋuhī, the goddess “Good Recompense.”

  • AḤSĀʾĪ, SHAIKH AḤMAD

    D. M. MacEoin

    (1753-1826), Shiʿite ʿālem and philosopher and unintending originator of the Šayḵī school of Shiʿism in Iran and Iraq.

  • AḤSAN AL-TAQĀSĪM

    C. E. Bosworth

    a celebrated geographical work in Arabic written towards the end of the 4th/10th century.

  • AḤSAN AL-TAWĀRĪḴ

    ʿA. Navāʾī

    a chronological history of Iran and the neighboring countries written by Ḥasan Beg Rūmlū (b. 937/1530-31), a qūṛčī in the service of the Safavid Shah Ṭahmāsb.

  • AHU

    B. Schlerath

    two homonymous Avestan terms: (1) “Existence, life” in a range of religious phrases, (2) “Lord, overlord,” linked with ratu- “lord, judge.”

  • ĀHŪ

    B. P. O’Regan, H. Javadi

    Two species of gazelle occur in Iran, Gazella sub-gutturosa and G. dorcas.

  • AHUNWAR

    C. J. Brunner

    Middle Persian form of Avestan Ahuna Vairya, name of the most sacred of the Gathic prayers.

  • AHURA

    F. B. J. Kuiper

    designation of a type of deity inherited by Zoroastrianism from the prehistoric Indo-Iranian religion.

  • AHURA MAZDĀ

    M. Boyce

    the Avestan name with title of a great divinity of the Old Iranian religion, who was subsequently proclaimed by Zoroaster as God.

  • AHURA.ṰKAĒŠA

    M. Boyce

    an infrequent Avestan adjective meaning “following the Ahuric doctrine.”

  • AHURĀNĪ

    B. Schlerath

    feminine deity of the waters.

  • AHVĀZ

    Multiple Authors

    city of southwestern Iran, located in the province of Ḵūzestān on the Kārun river.

  • AHVĀZ i. History

    C. E. Bosworth

    Ahvāz was apparently a flourishing town in pre-Islamic times. When the Arabs invaded Ḵūzestān in the later 630s, after the overrunning of Iraq, the general ʿOtba b. Ḡazwān destroyed the administrative half of the town of Ahvāz but preserved the commercial one.

  • AHVĀZ ii. The Modern City

    X. De Planhol

    The city has a grid plan adapted to the bends of the Kārūn river. Its heart is on the left bank of the Kārūn; a new quarter has been added on the right bank, where the railway station has been located. Besides the railway bridge an imposing road bridge links the two river banks.

  • AHVĀZ iii. Monuments

    J. Lerner

    Little of architectural interest appears to have survived from the medieval period, but a few structures in old Ahvāz and the new city are remnants of various historical and structural happenings.

  • AHVAZ iv. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Ahvaz: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • AHVĀZĪ

    D. Pingree

    a 4th/10th century mathematician.

  • AHVĀZĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’L-ḤASAN AHWĀZĪ.

  • ĀĪN GOŠASP

    A. Tafażżolī

    a general of Hormazd IV (A.D. 579-590), sent by him to campaign against the rebellious general Bahrām Čūbīn.

  • ĀĪN-E AKBARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See AKBAR-NĀMA.

  • ĀĪN-NĀMA

    A. Tafażżolī

    Arabic and New Persian form of Middle Persian ēwēn nāmag (“book of manners”), a general term for texts dealing with the exposition of manners, customs, skills, and arts and sciences.

  • ĀĪNA-KĀRĪ

    Eleanor G. Sims

    the practice of covering an architectural surface with a mosaic of mirror-glass.

  • ĀĪNA-YE ḠAYBNOMĀ

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    “The Revealing Mirror,” a fortnightly illustrated magazine which began publication in Tehran on 22 Jomādā I 1325/3 July 1907, edited by Sayyed ʿAbd-al-Raḥīm Kāšānī.

  • AIRYAMAN

    M. Boyce

    an ancient Iranian divinity and a yazata of the Zoroastrian pantheon, known in Manichean Middle Persian as Aryaman, in Pahlavi as Ērmān.