Table of Contents


    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    town in Ḵūzestān and district (bakš) in the county (šahrestān) of Behbahān, situated seventy-eight km to the northwest of the city of Behbahān.


    ʿA. Zaryāb

    title of a court official in the administrations of the Ghaznavids and Saljuqs.


    ʿA. Zaryāb

    Samanid amir and poet.


    K. Abu-Deeb

    (“The Book of Songs”), the major work of Abu’l-Faraǰ Eṣfahānī (284-356/897-967).

  • Agar ān tork-e Širāzi

    music sample



    See ĀQĀSĪ.


    R. W. Thomson

    (Greek for “messenger of good news”), the supposed author of a History of the Armenians, which describes the conversion of King Trdat of Armenia to Christianity at the beginning of the 4th century CE.


    M.-L. Chaumont

    Byzantine historian, b. 536 or 537,  d. about 580. Among other matters, Agathias’s History treats the war which was fought between Justinian and Xusraw I (Chosroes) in Lazica in 552-56—a war successfully conducted on the Persian side by the generals Mihr-Mihrōē (Mermeroes) and Naxwaragān (Nachoragan). Digressions, on the Persians in general and the Sasanians in particular, contain much information of interest.

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    R. Schnyder

    It was made by local workshops in the time of the Eldigüzids. Pieces which were reputedly found at Ray show that the ware was exported to a limited extent. Nothing indicates that the production survived the Mongol invasions of Azerbaijan, though similar pottery continued to be produced in the 7th/13th century in east Anatolia and north Syria.

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    A. Tafażżolī

    (Āḡoš son of Vehāḏ), king of Gīlān at the time of Kay Ḵosrow, the Kayanid king, and one of the commanders of his armies.

  • AGRA

    G. Hambly

    City and district center in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India, situated on the west bank of the river Jumna (Yamonā) approximately 125 miles south of Delhi.


    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (Av. Aγraēraθa), Turanian warrior and brother of Afrāsīāb in the Avestan yašts and in the the Šāh-nāma.


    E. Ehlers

    The tendency to possess not certain, regionally fixed parts of the land but shares of the total, is made possible by the custom of splitting each property or any part of it into “ideal” or “imaginary” shares or allotments.

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  • ĀHAK

    E. Ehlers, T. S. Kawami

    “lime,” a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide.

  • ĀHAN

    V. C. Pigott

    With the Tartar conquest of Syria, Tamerlane is said to have deported to Iran the skilled craftsmen he captured. It is suggested that from this point onward Iran supplied itself as well as India and the west with the finest damascene arms and armor, though the steel ingots still originated in India.

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  • AHAR

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    the name of a county (šahrestān) and town in Azerbaijan.


    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    Originating in the mountains of Eškanbar, Sārī Čaman and Qarāǰa-dāḡ, the Ahar river runs from east to west.


    İ. Aka

    (8th/14th cent.), author of Tārīḵ-eŠāh Oways, dedicated to the Jalayerid ruler Oways (757-76/1356-74).


    W. S. McCullough

    name of a Persian king in pre-Christian Jewish tradition; it appears in the biblical books of Esther (1.1 et passim), Ezra (4.6), and Daniel (9.1) and in the apocryphal book of Tobit (14.15).