Table of Contents



    Rudolf Gelpke was educated at the universities of Basel, Zürich, and Berlin. He became a noted writer in his early twenties, and his novel Holger und Mirjam was published in Zürich in 1951. His interests in the Islamic world began after a visit to Tunisia in 1952.

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    Parviz Mohebbi

    (Pers. ḥakkākī), the process of shaping and polishing faceted gemstones. The first-known reference in Persian to gem cutting is found in an anonymous treatise on jewelry, Jowhar-nāma-ye neẓāmī, written in 1195-96 under the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh. According to the sources, gem cutting and polishing were both done by the same machine—the grinding wheel or čarḵ-e ḥakkākī.

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    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Ağın district of Elazığ, 1897; d. Istanbul, 1976), Turkish poet and translator of Persian works.


    Stephanie Cronin

    the first modern highway patrol and rural police force in Persia. The Government Gendarmerie (Žāndārmerī-e dawlatī) was established in 1910 by the second Majles and proved the most enduring in a series of official projects for the modernization of the armed forces under the leadership of foreign officers.

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    Farzaneh Milani

    Gender relations in Persia.  Overview of article: i. In Modern Persia, ii. In the Islamic Republic.


    Hammed Shahidan

    ii. In the Islamic Republic.





    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    name of a category of supernatural beings believed to have been created from smokeless fire and to be living invisibly side-by-side the visible creation.


    Michele Bernardini

    an important port city in Liguria, in northwestern Italy, which during the Middle Ages played a significant role between Europe and the East, including Persia. Genoa was sacked by Muslim raiders from North Africa in 935 but became an economic and commercial power during the First Crusade (1096-1101).

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    Multiple Authors

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. Overview of the entry: i. Evolution of geographical knowledge, ii. Human geography, iii. Political geography, iv. Cartography of Persia.

  • GEOGRAPHY i. Evolution of geographical knowledge

    Xavier de Planhol

    Geography of Persia and Afghanistan. The concept of Iran and ancient Iranian geography (Justi; Spiegel, I, pp. 188-243 and especially pp. 210-12; Herzfeld, pp. 671-720; Gnoli, 1980, 1989).

  • GEOGRAPHY ii. Human geography

    Xavier de Planhol

    The primordial component of the land of Iran, since it was a sedentary world as opposed to the nomadic Tūrān, must have been situated above the level of the internal steppes and deserts, in the highland river valleys having both arable alluvial soils and plenty of water from the rainfall in the mountains.

  • GEOGRAPHY iii. Political Geography

    Xavier de Planhol

    The territory of Tajikistan corresponds with the predominantly Iranian ethnic sector of the mountainous south-eastern periphery of the Bukhara emirate, which came under Russian influence at the end of the 19th century. Its southern and eastern borders with Afghanistan and China are the results of international treaties.

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  • GEOGRAPHY iv. Cartography of Persia


    The world’s oldest known topographical map is a Babylonian clay tablet (ca. 2300 B.C.E.) found at Nuzi in northeastern Iraq. It is a relatively advanced picture map, showing two ranges of hills, as seen from the side, and the rivers they flank, by a series of parallel lines. The site covered by this map may have lain between the Zagros mountains and the hills running through Kirkuk.

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    Eckart Ehlers

    This article is concerned with those aspects of the geology of Persia that are of immediate economic and cultural significance for the country and its inhabitants, primarily (1) geological structure and orohydrographic differentiation of Persia, (2) geology and natural hazards, and (3) geology and natural resources.

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    See GŌDARZ.


    Multiple Authors

    (Pers. Gorjestān; Ar. al-Korj). This series of entries covers Georgia and its relations with Iran.

  • GEORGIA i. The land and the people

    Keith Hitchins

    At a crossroads of great empires to the east, west, and north throughout their history, the Georgians absorbed and adapted elements from the cultures of diverse peoples, while at the same time defending their political and cultural independence against all comers. The Georgians are today distinguished by a unique cultural heritage.

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  • GEORGIA ii. History of Iranian-Georgian Relations

    Keith Hitchins

    Between the Achaemenid era and the beginning of the 19th century, Persia helped to shape Georgian political institutions, modified social structure and land holding, and enriched literature and culture. 

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