Table of Contents

  • EḴWĀN AL-MOSLEMĪN, JAMʿĪYAT AL-

    Rudi Matthee

    lit. "Society of Muslim brethren"; the first modern religio-political movement in the Islamic world, founded in 1928 by Ḥasan Bannāʾ in Esmāʿīlīya Egypt.

  • EḴWĀN AL-ṢAFĀʾ

    Paul E. Walker

    a self-professed brotherhood of piously ascetic scholars.

  • ELĀHĪ

    Hamid Algar, J. W. Morris, Jean During

    or ʿAlīšāh (1895-1974), innovative and charismatic leader of one branch of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq and author of several texts on its teachings. The most complete presentation is to be found not in his Persian books, destined for circulation among Twelver Shiʿites, but in his unpublished writings in Gūrānī, intended to be read only by Ahl-e Ḥaqq initiates.

  • ELĀHĪ HAMADĀNĪ, SAYYED MĪR ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MAḤMŪD

    M. Asif Naim-Siddiqi

    b. Ḥojjat-Allāh Asadābādī, a poet of the 17th century from Asadābād, a village near Hamadān.

  • ELĀHĪ QOMŠA’Ī, MAHDĪ

    S. Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    b. Abu’l-Ḥasan (b. in Qomša, 1902; d. in Tehran, 1975), poet and professor of Islamic law and philosophy.

  • ELĀHĪ-NĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿAṬṬĀR.

  • ELĀHĪYĀT

    Cross-Reference

    See PHILOSOPHY.

  • ELAM

    Multiple Authors

    ancient country encompassing a large part of the Persian plateau at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. but reduced to the territory of Susiana in the Achaemenid period.

  • ELAM i. The history of Elam

    F. Vallat

    During the several millennia of its history the limits of Elam varied, not only from period to period, but also with the point of view of the person describing it. It seems that Mesopotamians in the late 3rd millennium B.C.E. considered Elam to encompass the entire Persian plateau, which extends from Mesopotamia to the Kavīr-e Namak and Dašt-e Lūt and from the Caspian to the Persian Gulf.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ELAM ii. The archeology of Elam

    Elizabeth Carter

    The archeological use of the term “Elam” is based on a loose unity recognizable in the material cultures of the period 3400-525 BCE at Susa in Ḵūzestān, at Anshan in Fārs, and at sites in adjacent areas of the Zagros mountains. Text-based definitions often lead to interpretations that are at odds with those derived from the study of material culture.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.