Table of Contents

  • ELAM iii. Proto-Elamite

    R. K. Englund

    "Proto-Elamite” is the term for a writing system in use in the Susiana plain and the Iranian highlands east of Mesopotamia between ca. 3050 and 2900 B.C.E., a period generally considered to correspond to the Jamdat Nasr/Uruk III through Early Dynastic I periods in Mesopotamia.

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  • ELAM iv. Linear Elamite

    MIRJO SALVINI

    a system of writing used at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. by Puzur-Inšušinak, the last of the twelve “kings of Awan,” according to a king list found at Susa. He ruled ca. 2150 B.C.E. and was a contemporary of Ur-Nammu, the first ruler of the Ur III dynasty in Mesopotamia.

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  • ELAM v. Elamite language

    FRANÇOISE GRILLOT-SUSINI

    is known from texts in cuneiform script (q.v.), most of them found at Susa but some from other sites in western and southwestern Iran and, in the east, in Fārs and ranging in date from the 24th to the 4th century B.C.E.

  • ELAM vi. Elamite religion

    F. Vallat

    The information furnished by archeological excavations in Persia and by cuneiform documents permit a summary description of some aspects of Elamite religion from the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. until the Achaemenid period.

  • ELAM vii. Non-Elamite texts in Elam

    SYLVIE LACKENBACHER

    Most non-Elamite texts inscribed on Elamite territories have been found in Susiana, that is, the region nearest to Mesopotamia and most exposed to Mesopotamian political and cultural influences.

  • ELBURZ

    Cross-Reference

    See ALBORZ.

  • ELBURZ COLLEGE

    Cross-Reference

    See ALBORZ COLLEGE.

  • ELČĪ

    David O. Morgan

    (īlčī) envoy, messenger, or official traveling on government business during the Mongol period and thereafter. 

  • ELECTIONS

    Fakhreddin Azimi, Shaul Bakhash, M. Hassan Kakar

    i. Under the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchies. ii. Under the Islamic republic, 1979-92. iii. In Afghanistan. 

  • ELEGY

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Ar. marṯīa, Pers. mūya), poetry of mourning in Persian literature.