Table of Contents

  • EXCAVATIONS

    Multiple Authors

    i. In Persia, ii. In Afghanistan, iii. In Central Asia, iv. In Chinese Turkestan

  • EXCAVATIONS i. In Persia

    David Stronach

    a diachronic survey of the main patterns of archaeological field research in Persia from the time of the first excavations in the middle of the 19th century down to the late l990s.

  • EXCAVATIONS ii. In Afghanistan

    Warwick Ball

    Archeological investigation, both excavation and recording of sites and monuments, began in Afghanistan in the early 19th century. Most such work was by travelers and British Indian army officers and often consisted of little more than passing observations.

  • EXCAVATIONS iii. In Central Asia

    B. A. LitvinskiĬ

    Archeological and architectural monuments of Central Asia are mentioned in reports from the 18th and early 19th centuries by European and Russian travelers, merchants, and diplomats. Major archaeological work began, however, only after the Russian conquest of the region; at first it was done by amateurs, especially military officers.

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  • EXCAVATIONS iv. In Chinese Turkestan

    B. A. LitvinskiĬ

    Chinese Turkestan refers to Xinjiang (Sinkiang), the Uighur Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China. Other names have often been applied to this part of Central Asia: Serindia (English and French); Ost-Turkestan, Chinesische Ost-Turkestan, Mittelasien (German); Vostochnyĭ Turkestan (Russian). Some of these terms are purely geographical (Mittelasien), some historical (Serindia), and others ethno-cultural (Turkestan).

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  • EXEGESIS

    Multiple Authors

    (Ar. tafsīr), commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts.

  • EXEGESIS i. In Zoroastrianism

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    Zoroastrian exegesis consists basically of the interpretation of the Avesta (q.v.). However, the closest equivalent Iranian concept, zand, generally includes Pahlavi texts which were believed to derive from commentaries upon Avestan scripture, but whose extant form contains no Avestan passages.

  • EXEGESIS ii. In Shiʿism

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    Shiʿite exegetes, perhaps even more than their Sunni counterparts, support their distinctive views by reference to Koranic proof-texts.

  • EXEGESIS iii. In Persian

    Annabel Keeler

    The writing of commentaries on the Koran in Persian seems to have begun during the second half of the 4th/10th century. The principal objective of such tafsīrs was ostensibly to give Persian speakers who were not proficient in Arabic direct access to the exegesis of the Koran.

  • EXEGESIS vi. In Aḵbārī and Post-Safavid Esoteric Shiʿism

    Todd Lawson

    Aḵbārī exegesis of the Koran, the style and content of which are much older than the Safavid period, became during that time a common method of interpreting Islamic scripture.

  • EXEGESIS vii. In Bahaism

    Todd Lawson

    importance of Koranic exegesis (tafsīr) and interpretation (taʾwīl)—a somewhat arbitrary distinction—for the Bābī and Bahai religions may be gathered from the fact that the inception of the former is dated to the commencement of a work of scriptural interpretation, namely the Bāb’s Tafsīr sūrat Yūsof, and that, in many ways, the most important work in the Bahai canon is the Ketāb-e īqān by Bahāʾ-Allāh.

  • EXEGESIS viii. Nishapuri School of Quranic Exegesis

    Walid A. Saleh

    A school of Quranic exegesis was established by three scholars from Nishapur in the 11th century which transformed the genre of tafsir and Quranic sciences and came to be known as the Nishapuri School.

  • EXILARCH

    Isaiah M. Gafni

    (Hebrew resh galuta), the leading authority in the Jewish community in Babylonia.

  • EXILE

    Cross-Reference

    See DEPORTATIONS; DIASPORA.

  • EXTRATERRITORIALITY

    Cross-Reference

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS.

  • EXTREMIST SHIʿITES

    Cross-Reference

    See ḠOLĀT.

  • EY IRĀN

    Morteza Hoseyni Dehkordi and Parvin Loloi

    (O Iran, O bejeweled land), the title of an ardently patriotic hymn of praise to the land of Iran.

  • EYES and EARS of KING

    Cross-Reference

    See COURTS AND COURTIERS.

  • EYVĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See AYVĀN.

  • EŻĀFA

    John R. Perry and Ali Ashraf Sadeghi

    (annexation, suppletion), a grammatical term embracing several types of Persian noun phrase in which the constituents are connected by the enclitic -e/-ye (kasra-ye eżāfa “the eżāfa particle”).

  • EZGĪL

    Cross-Reference

    or AZGĪL. See MEDLAR.

  • EZĪRĀN

    Sheila S. Blair

    a village 32 km southeast of Isfahan on the south bank of the river Zāyandarūd. 

  • EZNIK OF KOŁB

    James R. Russell

    or KOŁBACʿI (b. ca. 374-80), Armenian Christian theologian and cleric; his work contains a refutation of the Zoroastrian religion. 

  • ʿEZRĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See BIBLE.

  • ʿEZRĀ, BOOK OF

    J.C. Reeves

    canonical biblical book emanating from the early portion of the Second Temple period (515 B.C.E.-70 C.E.) of Jewish history. 

  • ʿEZRĀ-NĀMA

    Amnon Netzer

    paraphrased versification of the Book of ʿEzrā containing midrashic and Iranian legends. 

  • ʿEZRĀʾĪL

    Cross-Reference

    lit. "Angel of Death." See Supplement (ANGELS).

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-al-RAŠĪD

    C. E. Bosworth

    See ʿABD-AL-RAŠĪD, ABŪ MANṢŪR.

  • ʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-ṢAMAD MĪRZĀ

    Kambiz Eslami

    In 1872, ʿEzz-al-Dawla became the chieftain of the Qajar tribe, a prestigious albeit ceremonial position that he held for a year. It was in this capacity that he was selected to join Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah’s entourage on his first tour of Europe in 1873. ʿEzz-al-Dawla was an educated man with a knowledge of French and English and was also an avid reader and book collector.

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  • ʿEZZ-AL-DĪN KĀŠĀNĪ, MAḤMŪD

    Māšā-Allāh Ajūdānī

    b. ʿAlī Naṭanzī (d. 1334-35), an author and Sufi of the early 14th century.

  • ʿEZZAT PĀŠĀ, MOḤAMMAD

    Tahsın Yazici

    (1843-1914), author of a Persian-Turkish dictionary and translator of Persian literary works.

  • ʿEZZAT-AL-DAWLA, MALEKAZĀDA ḴĀNOM

    Kambiz Eslami

    (1834/35-1905), the only full sister of Nāṣer-al-Dīn Shah. The first (1849-52) of her five marriages was as second wife of Mīrzā Taqī Khan Amīr Kabīr. One of her two daughters by him married the crown prince Moẓaffar-al-Din Mirza and bore a son, the future Moḥammad-ʿAlī Shah (r. 1907-09). 

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  • E~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter E entries.