Table of Contents

  • DĪRAKVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    Lor tribe belonging to the Bālā Garīva group and inhabiting a mountainous area between Ḵorramābād and Dezfūl in the Pīš-Kūh region of Lorestān.

  • DĪRGHANAKHA-SŪTRA

    Yutaka Yoshida

    a Buddhist text in which the Buddha expounds the merits of observing the eight commandments to a parivrājaka named Dīrghanakha.

  • DIRHAM

    Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates

    a unit of silver coinage and of weight. The dirham retained a stable value of about 4 g throughout the entire pre-Islamic period. The tetradrachm, or stater (> Pahl. stēr), was equivalent to 4 drachmas and was already in circulation in the Achaemenid period at the time of Alexander’s departure for Persia.

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  • DĪV

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    demon, monster, fiend; expresses not only the idea of “demon,” but also that of “ogre,” “giant,” and even “Satan.”

  • DĪV SOLṬĀN

    Roger M. Savory

    title of ʿALĪ BEG RŪMLŪ, a qezelbāš officer first mentioned at the battle of Šarūr (1501), in which the Safavid Esmāʿīl I defeated the Āq Qoyūnlū prince Alvand.

  • DĪVĀL-E ḴODĀYDĀD

    Klaus Fischer

    an extensive area of historic remains in the center of an ancient canal system fed by the rivers Helmand and Ḵāšrūd and located between the eastern border of the Hāmūn-e Aškīnʿām and the lower Ḵāšrūd, about 45 km to the northeast of Zaranj in southwest Afghanistan.

  • DĪVĀN

    François de Blois

    archive, register, chancery, government office; also, collected works, especially of a poet.

  • DĪVĀN-E KEŠVAR

    Cross-Reference

    See JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. Judicial System in the 20th Century.

  • DĪVĀNA NAQQĀŠ

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    15th-century painter whose work is known primarily from single-page paintings preserved in the Topkapı Sarayı library, Istanbul.

  • DĪVĀNBEGĪ

    Shiro Ando, Roger M. Savory

    originally, the designation for the highest-ranking officer in the Timurid office of finance and justice; in the Safavid administrative system, the dīvānbegī was one of the high-ranking amirs residing at court.

  • DĪVĀNĪ, ḴAṬṬ-E

    Cross-Reference

    See CALLIGRAPHY.

  • DĪVDĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See BANŪ SĀJ.

  • DIVINATION

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    the art or technique of gaining knowledge of future events or distant states by means of observing and interpreting signs.

  • DIVORCE

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev, Mansour Shaki, Sachiko Murata, Akbar Aghajanian, Jenny Rose, Mujan Momen

    legal termination of marriage. In the following series of articles only those communities are taken into consideration which are either Iranian or are focused in Persia. For this reason Jewish and Christian practices have not been included.

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  • DIZK

    Cross-Reference

    See JIZAK.

  • DJANBAZIAN, Sarkis

    Maria Sabaye Moghaddam

    After graduating from high school, Djanbazian went to Leningrad to study dance. He graduated from Vaganova Dance Academy of Leningrad in 1936 and from Lesgaf University with a Masters of Arts degree in 1936. After graduation, he worked as a principal dancer, choreographer, and artistic director in Kirov Theatre.

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  • DJEITUN WARE

    Cross-Reference

    See CERAMICS i.

  • DO-BARĀDARĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See JĀMI.

  • DO-BAYTĪ

    Stephen Blum

    a quatrain of sung poetry in many Persian dialects.

  • DOʿĀ

    Hamid Algar

    the act of offering supplicatory or petitionary prayer, a principal manifestation of Muslim piety.

  • DOʿĀ-NEVĪSĪ

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    the act of writing charms against various evils.

  • DOĀB-E MĪḴZARĪN

    Klaus Fischer

    a group of archeological sites with numerous pre-Islamic mud-brick ruins on either side of the Sorḵāb river, on the road from Bāmīān to Došī, opposite the entrance to the Kahmard valley.

  • DOCUMENTS

    Mansour Shaki, Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    i. In pre-Islamic period. ii. Babylonian and Egyptian documents in the Achaemenid period. iii. In the modern period.

  • DŌDĀ-BĀLĀÇ

    Cross-Reference

    See BALUCHISTAN iii/II.

  • DODDER

    Cross-Reference

    See AFTĪMŪN.

  • DOG

    Mahmoud Omidsalar and Teresa P. Omidsalar, Mary Boyce, Jean-Pierre Digard

    Canis familiaris; i. In literature and folklore. ii. In Zoroastrianism. iii. Ethnography.

  • DOḠLAT, MĪRZĀ MOḤAMMAD ḤAYDAR

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • DOGONBADAN

    Cross-Reference

    See GAČSARĀN.

  • DOJAYL

    Cross-Reference

    See KĀRŪN.

  • DOḴĀNĪYĀT

    Willem Floor

    tobacco projects; referring to the State tobacco-monopoly law (Qānūn-e enḥeṣār-e dawlatī-e doḵānīyāt) of 20 March 1909 and to the state monopoly of tobacco products itself.

  • DOKKĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZĀR i.

  • DOKKĀN-E DĀWŪD

    Hubertus von Gall

    lit., “shop of David"; rock-cut tomb of the Achaemenid period in the Zagros range a few kilometers southeast of Sar-e Pol-e Ḏohāb, in the province of Kermānšāhān. The relief of a priest with a barsom bundle probably belongs to the early Hellenistic period.

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  • DOḴTAR-E NŌŠERVĀN

    MARKUS MODE

    lit., “daughter of Nōšervān”; rock-cut architectural complex with important wall paintings in the Ḵolm valley in northern Afghanistan, discovered in 1924. Surrounding the deity’s head is a tripartite nimbus with attached animal protomes. This complex system seems to emphasize the supernatural force of the “king of gods” as ultimate creator of all life.

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  • DOḴTARĀN-E ĪRĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    lit., “Daughters of Iran”; a monthly variety magazine for girls published in Shiraz from 23 July 1931 to November 1932.

  • DOKUZ ḴĀTŪN

    Charles Melville

    (d. 16 June 1265), chief wife of the Il-khan Hülegü and granddaughter of Wang Khan, leader of the Nestorian Christian Kereyit tribe domiciled near present-day Ulan Bator.

  • DOLAFIDS

    Fred M. Donner

    family of Arab origin that became politically prominent in western Persia during the 9th century.

  • DOLDOL

    Aḥmad Mahdawī Dāmḡānī

    or Doldūl, in Ar. lit., “large porcupine”; name of a female mule that Moqawqes, governor of Egypt, sent to the Prophet Moḥammad as a gift.

  • DOLGORUKOV MEMOIRS

    Moojan Momen

    document published under the title Eʿterāfāt-e sīāsī yā yāddāšthā-ye Kenyāz Dolqorūkī (Political confessions or memoirs of Prince Dolgorukov) in the historical portion of the “Khorasan yearbook,” issued in Mašhad in 1943.

  • DOLICHĒ

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in the Roman province of Syria conquered together with the surrounding area by Šāpūr I  during his second campaign against Rome in 252 or 253.

  • DOLMA

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    or dūlma; Turkish term for stuffed vegetable or fruit dishes common in the Middle East and in Mediterranean countries.

  • DOLOMITAE

    Cross-Reference

    See DEYLAMITES i.

  • DOMAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in the Roman province of Cappadocia, conquered along with the surrounding area by the Sasanian Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome.

  • DOMES

    Bernard O’Kane

    circular vaulted roofs or ceilings. The variety of forms and decoration of Persian domes is unrivaled. Domes on squinches first appeared in Persia in the Sasanian period in the palace at Fīrūzābād in Fārs and at nearby Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar, both erected by Ardašir I (r. 224-40).

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  • DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    Daniel Balland and Jean-Pierre Digard

    This article is devoted to the principal characteristics of the predominant systems of domestication in Afghanistan and Persia, what they owe to neighboring or preceding systems, how they have departed from them, and whether or not it is possible to speak of a typically Iranian system of domestication.

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  • DONALDSON, BESS ALLEN

    Peter Avery

    (1879-1974) and DWIGHT MARTIN (1884-1976), American Presbyterian missionaries and writers about Persia.

  • DONBA

    M. R. Ghanoonparvar

    the fatty part of the sheep’s tail, traditionally used as a cooking fat, sometimes in melted form, or as an inexpensive meat substitute.

  • DONBAK

    Cross-Reference

    See TONBAK.

  • DONBĀVAND

    Cross-Reference

    See DAMĀVAND.

  • DONBOLĪ

    ʿALĪ ĀL-E DĀWŪD and Pierre Oberling

    name of a turkicized Kurdish tribe in the Ḵoy and Salmās regions of northwestern Azerbaijan and of the leading family of Ḵoy since the 16th century.

  • DONBOLĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ BEG.