Table of Contents

  • DEDE BEG ḎU’L-QADAR

    Cross-Reference

    See ABDĀL BEG.

  • DEDE ʿOMAR RŪŠANĪ

    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Güzel Ḥeṣār, Aydın province, in western Anatolia, at an indeterminate date; d. Tabrīz, 1487), Turkish Sufi who wrote poetry in both Persian and Turkish.

  • DEDE YŪSOF SĪNAČĀK

    Tahsın Yazici

    (b. Yenice on the Vardar in Ottoman Māqadūnīā [modern Macedonia] at an indeterminate date, d. Istanbul, 1546), Mawlawī Sufi shaikh, poet, and author.

  • DĒDMARĪ, ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD-AʿẒAM

    Shamsuddin Ahmad

    (1691-1765), historian, poet, and Sufi of Kashmir.

  • DEER

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀHŪ, RED DEER.

  • DEFRÉMERY, Charles-François

    Francis Richard

    (b. Cambray, France, 18 December 1822, d. St.-Valéry-en Caux, France, 18 August 1883), French orientalist and scholar.

  • DEH

    Daniel Balland and Marcel Bazin

    village, in Persia and Afghanistan.

  • DEH MORĀSĪ ḠONDAY

    Jim G. Shaffer

    a Bronze Age archeological site located at 34° 90’ N, 65° 30’ E, adjacent to the village of Deh Morāsī, approximately 27 km southwest of Qandahār and 6.5 km east-southeast of Pahjwāʾī in southeastern Afghanistan.

  • DEH-BOKRĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    Kurdish tribe of Kurdistan.

  • DEH-E NOW

    Hubertus von Gall

    site of a group of four rock-cut tombs of the 4th-3rd centuries BCE, located about 25 km south of Bīsotūn in Kermānšāhān. It is possible that at least the two smaller tombs were astōdāns.

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  • DEHBĪD

    Sayyed ʿAlī Āl-e Dāwūd

    town in the šahrestān of Ābāda, Fārs (30° 37’ N, 53° 12’ E), situated on the Shiraz-Isfahan road in a plain 191 km northeast of Shiraz.

  • DEHESTĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (in modern Persian administrative usage a rural district consisting of a number of villages), the name of a region in medieval Gorgān and a town in Bādḡīs and another in Kermān.

  • DEHESTĀNĪ , AʿAZZ-AL-MOLKNEẒĀM-AL-DĪN ABU’L-MAḤĀSEN ʿABD-AL-JALĪL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. ʿAlī, twice vizier to the Saljuq sultan Barkīāroq (1094-1105).

  • DEHESTĀNĪ, ḤOSAYN

    Moḥammad Dabīrsīāqī

    b. Asʿad b. Ḥosayn Moʾayyadī, Persian translator of the Arabic work al-Faraj baʿd al-šedda by Abū ʿAlī Moḥassen (939-94), a collection of poems, anecdotes, sayings, and didactic remarks arranged in thirteen chapters on the general theme of joy following hardship.

  • DEHḴODĀ, MĪRZĀ ʿALĪ-AKBAR QAZVĪNĪ

    ʿA.-A. SAʿĪDĪ SĪRJĀNĪ

    (ca. 1879–1956), scholar, poet, and social critic. In all his writing Dehḵodā was a perfectionist and a meticulous craftsman. He was a nationalist, outspoken in his convictions, indifferent to the wrath of powerful men, and a firm believer in Persian culture.

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  • DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀẔARŠAHR.

  • DEHLAVĪ, ŠĀH WALĪ-ALLĀH QOṬB-AL-DĪN AḤMAD ABU’L-FAYYĀŻ

    Marcia K. Hermansen

    (1703-62), leading Muslim intellectual of India and writer on a wide range of Islamic topics in Arabic and Persian; more than thirty-five of his works are extant.

  • DEHLĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See DELHI SULTANATE.

  • DEHLORĀN

    Frank Hole

    (Deh Lorān), the name of a šahrestān (subprovince) in Īlām province in southwestern Persia, and of the main town.

  • DEHQĀN

    Aḥmad Tafażżolī

    arabicized form of Syriac dhgnʾ, borrowed from Pahlavi dehgān (older form dahīgān).

  • DEIOCES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Dēïókēs), name of a Median king.

  • DEIPNOSOPHISTAÍ

    Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin

    lit. "Banquet of the Sophists"; a miscellany in the form of dialogues ostensibly conducted at table, including approximately one hundred passages pertaining to Persia.

  • DEITY

    Cross-Reference

    See under ACHAEMENID RELIGION; AHRIMAN; AHURA MAZDĀ; MANICHEISM ii. The Manichean Pantheon; ZOROASTRIANISM; SHIʿITE DOCTRINE.

  • DEJLA

    Cross-Reference

    See ARVAND-RŪD; TIGRIS.

  • ḎEKR

    Gerhard Böwering, Moojan Momen

    lit., “remembrance”; the act of reminding oneself of God.

  • ḎEKRĪS

    Cross-Reference

    See BALUCHISTAN i.

  • DELĀRESTĀQ

    Bernard Hourcade

    also Delārostāq, Dīlārostāq; dehestān (administrative district) in the šahrestān of Āmol (Lārījān baḵš), on the northeastern slope of Mount Damāvand in Māzandarān.

  • DELBARJĪN

    Paul Bernard

    urban site 40 km northwest of Balḵ, on the northern limit of an oasis irrigated by the Balḵāb, near a defensive wall built during the Greek period (ca 329-130 BCE) to protect the oasis. The earliest stage of the citadel may date from the Achaemenid period.

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  • DELDĀR,YŪNES MELA RAʾŪF

    Joyce Blau

    (b. in the sanjaq of Ḵoy in the Ottoman empire, 20 February 1918; d. Erbīl, Iraq, 12 October 1948), Kurdish poet and humanist.

  • DELDĀR-ʿALĪ

    Juan R. I. Cole

    b. Moḥammad-Moʿīn NAṢĪRĀBĀDĪ, Sayyed Ḡofrān-maʾāb (b. Naṣīrābād near Lucknow, 1753, d. Lucknow ca. 1820), Shiʿite cleric of northern India who helped to establish the Shiʿite form of Friday prayers and propagated the rationalist Oṣūlī school of jurisprudence in the Avadh region.

  • DÉLÉGATIONS ARCHÉOLOGIQUES FRANÇAISES

    Francine Tissot

    bodies established by the French government to conduct archeological investigations in Persia and Afghanistan respectively.

  • DELHI SULTANATE

    Gavin R. G. Hambly, Catherine B. Asher

    Muslim kingdom established in northern India by Central Asian Turkish warlords at the turn of the 13th century and continuing in an increasingly persianized milieu until its conquest by Bābor in 1526. The political style of the rulers of Delhi reflected traditional concepts of Persian kingship, for Iltutmiš (r. 1211-36) and his successors lacked any other obvious tradition to draw upon.

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  • DELĪKĀNLŪ

    Pierre Oberling

    tribe of the Ḵalḵāl region in eastern Persian Azerbaijan.

  • DELKAŠ

    Erik Nakjavani

    stage name of ʿEṣmat Bāqerpur Panbaforuš (b. Bābol, Māzandarān, 1924; d. Tehran, 2004) popular Persian singer and actress of the mid-20th century.

  • DELKAŠ (1)

    Cathérine Poujol

    (b. Bukhara at an indeterminate date, d. Bukhara, 1902), Tajik poet and musician known and revered for melodies performed on the tanbūr.

  • DELKAŠ (2)

    Jean During

    an important modal unit (šāh gūša) linked to the dastgāh Māhūr, constituting one of its four main modulations, perhaps the most important in expressive function, which contrasts strongly with that of Māhūr itself.

  • DELLA VALLE, PIETRO

    John Gurney

    (b. Rome, 11 April 1586, d. Rome, 21 April 1652), one of the most remarkable travelers of the Renaissance, whose Viaggi is the best contemporary account of the lands between Istanbul and Goa in the early 17th century.

  • DELOUGAZ

    Ezat O. Negahban

    (b. Ukraine, 16 July 1901, d. Čoḡā Mīš, Persia, 29 March 1975), archeologist and excavator of the ancient site of Čoḡā Mīš in Persia.

  • DELŠĀD BARNĀ

    Evelin Grassi

    (1800-1905), Tajik educator, historian, and poetess bilingual in Persian and Chaghatay Turkish.

  • DELŠĀD ḴĀTŪN

    Charles Melville

    eldest daughter of the Chobanid Demašq Ḵᵛāja and Tūrsīn Ḵātūn, granddaughter of the Il-khanid sultan Aḥmad Takūdār.

  • DEMARATUS

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    king of Sparta (from at least as early as 510 B.C.E.) who took refuge with Darius I.

  • DEMAŠQ ḴᵛĀJA

    Charles Melville

    third son of the amir Čobān, possibly born in 1300, when his father was on campaign in Damascus.

  • DEMETRIUS

    A. D. H. Bivar

    name of two Greco-Bactrian kings.

  • DEMOCEDES

    RÜDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Dēmokḗdēs), Greek physician attached to the court of Darius I and praised as “the most skillful physician of his time” by Herodotus.

  • DEMOCRACY

    Cross-Reference

    See ANJOMAN; CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION i-v; ELECTIONS.

  • DEMOCRAT PARTY

    Cross-Reference

    See CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION v.

  • DEMOGRAPHY

    Bernard Hourcade, Daniel Balland

    , the statistical study of characteristics of human populations. Since World War II Persia, formerly a rural and tribal country dominated by elderly notables and with low population growth, has come to have a majority of young urban dwellers, mostly literate and multiplying rapidly. In 1979, the proportions of urban dwellers and individuals classified as literate both passed the threshold of 50 percent.

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  • DEMOTIC CHRONICLE

    Edda Bresciani

    Egyptian papyrus document of the early 2nd century B.C.E. in which anti-Persian themes, especially focused on Cambyses, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes III, were elaborated in Ptolemaic Egyptian sacerdotal and intellectual surroundings.

  • DEMOTTE ŠĀH-NĀMA

    Priscilla P. Soucek

    illustrated manuscript, now dispersed, of Ferdowsī’s epic poem, often identified by the name of a former owner, the Paris dealer Georges Demotte (active ca. 1900-23). It is generally believed to have been produced for a patron associated with the Il-khanid court and is renowned for the  quality of its paintings.

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  • DĒN

    Mansour Shaki

    theological and metaphysical term with a variety of meanings:  “the sum of man’s spiritual attributes and individuality, vision, inner self, conscience, religion.”