Table of Contents

  • DEZFUL

    Multiple Authors

    a town and sub-province in northern Khuzestan province.

  • DEZFŪL i. Geography

    Massoud Kheirabadi

    or Dez-pol, lit. "fortress bridge"; šahrestān (subprovincial administrative unit) and city in northern Ḵūzestān province.

  • DEZFUL ii. Population, 1956-2011

    Mohammad Hossein Nejatian

    This article deals with the following population characteristics of Dezful: population growth from 1956 to 2011, age structure, average household size, literacy rate, and economic activity status.

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  • DEZFŪLĪ AND ŠŪŠTARĪ DIALECTS

    COLIN MACKINNON

    Dezfūlī and Šūštarī are two closely related Persian dialects spoken by the indigenous inhabitants of Dezfūl and Šūštar in Ḵūzestān province.

  • DEZKŪH

    Farhad Daftary

    or Šāhdez; a medieval mountain fortress situated in central Persia on the summit of Mount Ṣoffa, about 8 km south of Isfahan.

  • DHABHAR, BAHMANJI NUSSERWANJI

    Mary Boyce and Firoze M. Kotwal

    (b. 1869, Navsari, d. 1952, Bombay), eminent Parsi scholar of Bhagaria stock.

  • DHALLA, DASTUR MANECKJI NUSSERWANJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    In 1878 Dhalla came to Karachi with his father, married at the age of nine, and was ordained a priest (navar) in 1890. For a while he abandoned his studies and worked to augment the family’s meagre income, but his scholarly interest never waned.

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  • DHĀR, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR

    Cross-Reference

    See DHĀRVĀL.

  • DHĀRAṆĪ

    Hiroshi Kumamoto, Yutaka Yoshida

    magic spells in the Buddhist Mahāyānist and Tantric (esoteric) traditions.

  • DHARMAŚARĪRA-SŪTRA

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    a short Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyānist tradition.

  • DHĀRVĀL, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR MOḤAMMAD DEHLAVĪ

    M. Saleem Akhtar

    or DHĀR, 15th-century Persian lexicographer in India, so named because he settled in Dhār (hence his nesba Dhārvāl), capital of the Ghurid principality of Malwa.

  • DHŪTA-SŪTRA

    Yutaka Yoshida

    name of a Buddhist Sogdian text discovered at Tun-huang.

  • DHYĀNA TEXT

    Yutaka Yoshida

    designation of a Buddhist Sogdian text of 405 lines discovered at Tun-huang.

  • DĪA

    Khalid Abu El Fadl

    the prescribed blood money or wergild paid in compensation for a wrongful death or certain other physical injuries.

  • DIAKONOFF, Igor’ Mikhaĭlovich

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    Diakonoff established international contacts and participated in organizing important scholarly projects. In particular, he took an active part in the organization of the 25th International Congress of Orientalists held in Moscow in 1960 (he was the Executive Secretary of the Organizing Committee).

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  • DĪĀLA

    Cross-Reference

    river. See ARVAND-RŪD.

  • DIALECTOLOGY

    GERNOT L. WINDFUHR

    the terms dialect and language overlap; in general, language refers to the more or less unified system of the phonology, grammar, and lexicon that is shared by the speakers of a country, or geographic region, or a socially defined group, whereas dialect (Pers. lahja, gūyeš) focuses on varieties of a language.

  • DĪĀRBAKR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMIDA.

  • DIASPORA

    Mary Boyce, Fariba Zarrinbaf-Shahr, H. Hakimian, Yitzhak Nakash, Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, Mehdi Bozorgmehr, Grant Farr, Čangīz Pahlavān

    Iranian. i. In Pre-Islamic times. ii. Persians in India. iii. Persians in Southeast Asia. iv. Persians in Ottomon Turkey. v. Persians in the Caucasus and Central Asia in the late 19th and early 20th century. vi. Persians in Iraq. vii. Persians in Southern ports of the Persian Gulf. viii. In the Post-revolutionary period. ix. Afghan refugees in Pakistan. x. Afghan refugees in Persia.

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  • DIATESSERON

    Cross-reference

    Persian translation of the four Gospels, based on a Syriac original. See BIBLE vii. Persian Translations.

  • DĪBĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABRĪŠAM.

  • DĪBĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĀʾ-al-MOLK.

  • DIBĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See DABĪR.

  • DICHŌR

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city conquered by Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome in 253, as recorded in his inscription at Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • DICKSON, MARTIN BERNARD

    Kathryn Babayan

    (b. Brooklyn, 22 March 1924, d. Princeton, 14 May 1991), Iranist and Central Asianist who specialized in Safavid history.

  • DICTIONARIES

    ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī, John R. Perry, Ḥosayn Sāmeʿī

    The first extant Persian dictionary is Lōḡat-e fors of the poet Asadī Ṭūsī (q.v.). Entries are arranged according to their final letters and illustrated by examples from poetry. Over ten manuscripts are known to have reached us, all of which differ in the number of entries and verses as well as the entry definitions.

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  • DIDYMA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. tà Dídyma, probably of Carian origin), district ca. 20 km south of the Ionian Miletus and site of a pre-Greek sanctuary of Apollo, to which a famous oracle was attached.

  • DIEU, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS) DE

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    (b. Vlissingen, Flushing, April 7, 1590; d. Leiden, Dec. 23, 1642), Dutch orientalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, JANE HENRIETTE MAGRE

    Jean Calmard

    (b. Toulouse, 29 June 1851, d. Château de Langlade, Haute-Garonne, 25 May 1916), French archeologist, explorer, folklorist, novelist, playwright, and journalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, MARCEL-AUGUSTE

    Pierre Amiet

    (b. Toulouse, 3 August 1844, d. Paris, 25 February 1920), French archeologist.

  • DIEZ, ERNST

    Jens Kröger

    (b. 27 January 1878, d. 8 July 1961), Austrian historian of Iranian and Islamic art.

  • DIGOR

    F. Thordarson

    Ossetic tribal name.

  • DILL

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Anethum graveolens L. (fam. Umbellifera), an herb widely cultivated in Persia.

  • DIMDIM

    Amir Hassanpour

    name of a mountain and a fortress where an important battle between the Kurds and the Safavid army took place in the early 17th century.

  • DIMLĪ

    Garnik S. Asatrian

    or Zāzā; the indigenous name of an Iranian people living mainly in eastern Anatolia, in the Dersim region (present-day Tunceli) between Erzincan in the north and the Muratsu in the south, the far western part of historical Upper Armenia.

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  • DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    EIr

    b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara.

  • DĪN WA’L-ḤAYĀT, AL-

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a bi-weekly religious magazine published in Tabrīz, 1928-31, replacing another Tabrīz religious magazine, Taḏakkorāt-e dīnī.

  • DINAR

    Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates

    a gold coin, in pre-Islamic times struck mainly for purposes of prestige. In Arabic of the classical Islamic period, the word dīnār had the double sense of a gold coin and of a monetary unit which might not be precisely embodied by actual coins.

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  • DĪNĀR, MALEK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Moḥammad (d. 1195), a leader of the Oghuz Turkmen in Khorasan and, in the latter years of the 12th century, ruler of Kermān.

  • DĪNĀRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BAḴTĪĀRĪ.

  • DĪNAVAR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (occasionally vocalized Daynavar), in the first centuries of Islam an important town in Jebāl, now ruined.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA AḤMAD

    Charles Pellat

    b. Dāwūd b. Vanand (d. between 894 and 903), grammarian, lexicographer, astronomer, mathematician, and Islamic traditionist of Persian origin, who lived at Dīnavar and in several cities in Iraq in the 9th century.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Ḥamdān b. Wahb b. Bešr (d. 902), traditionist and ḥāfeẓ (preserver of the Koranic text).

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Mobārak (d. first half of the 10th century), author of a tafsīr (koranic exegesis) entitled al-Wāżeḥ fī tafsīr al-Qorʾān, which is preserved in several manuscripts.

  • DĪNĀVARĪYA

    Werner Sundermann

    in Manichean usage originally “the elect.”

  • DINKHA TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See DENḴĀ TEPE.

  • DINON

    Wolfgang Felix

    (fl. approximately 360-30 B.C.E.), author of a historical work on the Ancient Orient.

  • DĪNŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY.

  • DIO CASSIUS

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (more correctly, Cassius Dio; b. Nicea, Bithynia, ca. 160, d. Nicea, after 229), Roman official whose Rhomaikē Historia is important for the study of Parthian history.

  • DIO CHRYSOSTOM

    Cross-Reference

    See DIO COCCEIANUS.