Table of Contents

  • DHALLA, DASTUR MANECKJI NUSSERWANJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    In 1878 Dhalla came to Karachi with his father, married at the age of nine, and was ordained a priest (navar) in 1890. For a while he abandoned his studies and worked to augment the family’s meagre income, but his scholarly interest never waned.

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  • DHĀR, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR

    Cross-Reference

    See DHĀRVĀL.

  • DHĀRAṆĪ

    Hiroshi Kumamoto, Yutaka Yoshida

    magic spells in the Buddhist Mahāyānist and Tantric (esoteric) traditions.

  • DHARMAŚARĪRA-SŪTRA

    Hiroshi Kumamoto

    a short Buddhist text belonging to the Mahāyānist tradition.

  • DHĀRVĀL, QĀŻĪ KHAN BADR MOḤAMMAD DEHLAVĪ

    M. Saleem Akhtar

    or DHĀR, 15th-century Persian lexicographer in India, so named because he settled in Dhār (hence his nesba Dhārvāl), capital of the Ghurid principality of Malwa.

  • DHŪTA-SŪTRA

    Yutaka Yoshida

    name of a Buddhist Sogdian text discovered at Tun-huang.

  • DHYĀNA TEXT

    Yutaka Yoshida

    designation of a Buddhist Sogdian text of 405 lines discovered at Tun-huang.

  • DĪA

    Khalid Abu El Fadl

    the prescribed blood money or wergild paid in compensation for a wrongful death or certain other physical injuries.

  • DIAKONOFF, Igor’ Mikhaĭlovich

    Muhammad Dandamayev

    Diakonoff established international contacts and participated in organizing important scholarly projects. In particular, he took an active part in the organization of the 25th International Congress of Orientalists held in Moscow in 1960 (he was the Executive Secretary of the Organizing Committee).

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  • DĪĀLA

    Cross-Reference

    river. See ARVAND-RŪD.

  • DIALECTOLOGY

    GERNOT L. WINDFUHR

    the terms dialect and language overlap; in general, language refers to the more or less unified system of the phonology, grammar, and lexicon that is shared by the speakers of a country, or geographic region, or a socially defined group, whereas dialect (Pers. lahja, gūyeš) focuses on varieties of a language.

  • DĪĀRBAKR

    Cross-Reference

    See AMIDA.

  • DIASPORA

    Mary Boyce, Fariba Zarrinbaf-Shahr, H. Hakimian, Yitzhak Nakash, Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, Mehdi Bozorgmehr, Grant Farr, Čangīz Pahlavān

    Iranian. i. In Pre-Islamic times. ii. Persians in India. iii. Persians in Southeast Asia. iv. Persians in Ottomon Turkey. v. Persians in the Caucasus and Central Asia in the late 19th and early 20th century. vi. Persians in Iraq. vii. Persians in Southern ports of the Persian Gulf. viii. In the Post-revolutionary period. ix. Afghan refugees in Pakistan. x. Afghan refugees in Persia.

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  • DIATESSERON

    Cross-reference

    Persian translation of the four Gospels, based on a Syriac original. See BIBLE vii. Persian Translations.

  • DĪBĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABRĪŠAM.

  • DĪBĀ, MAḤMŪD KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĀʾ-al-MOLK.

  • DIBĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See DABĪR.

  • DICHŌR

    Erich Kettenhofen

    city conquered by Šāpūr I (240-70) during his second campaign against Rome in 253, as recorded in his inscription at Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • DICKSON, MARTIN BERNARD

    Kathryn Babayan

    (b. Brooklyn, 22 March 1924, d. Princeton, 14 May 1991), Iranist and Central Asianist who specialized in Safavid history.

  • DICTIONARIES

    ʿAlī Ašraf Ṣādeqī, John R. Perry, Ḥosayn Sāmeʿī

    The first extant Persian dictionary is Lōḡat-e fors of the poet Asadī Ṭūsī (q.v.). Entries are arranged according to their final letters and illustrated by examples from poetry. Over ten manuscripts are known to have reached us, all of which differ in the number of entries and verses as well as the entry definitions.

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  • DIDYMA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. tà Dídyma, probably of Carian origin), district ca. 20 km south of the Ionian Miletus and site of a pre-Greek sanctuary of Apollo, to which a famous oracle was attached.

  • DIEU, LOUIS (LUDOVICUS) DE

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    (b. Vlissingen, Flushing, April 7, 1590; d. Leiden, Dec. 23, 1642), Dutch orientalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, JANE HENRIETTE MAGRE

    Jean Calmard

    (b. Toulouse, 29 June 1851, d. Château de Langlade, Haute-Garonne, 25 May 1916), French archeologist, explorer, folklorist, novelist, playwright, and journalist.

  • DIEULAFOY, MARCEL-AUGUSTE

    Pierre Amiet

    (b. Toulouse, 3 August 1844, d. Paris, 25 February 1920), French archeologist.

  • DIEZ, ERNST

    Jens Kröger

    (b. 27 January 1878, d. 8 July 1961), Austrian historian of Iranian and Islamic art.

  • DIGOR

    F. Thordarson

    Ossetic tribal name.

  • DILL

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Anethum graveolens L. (fam. Umbellifera), an herb widely cultivated in Persia.

  • DIMDIM

    Amir Hassanpour

    name of a mountain and a fortress where an important battle between the Kurds and the Safavid army took place in the early 17th century.

  • DIMLĪ

    Garnik S. Asatrian

    or Zāzā; the indigenous name of an Iranian people living mainly in eastern Anatolia, in the Dersim region (present-day Tunceli) between Erzincan in the north and the Muratsu in the south, the far western part of historical Upper Armenia.

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  • DĪN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    EIr

    b. Olūs Khan, the Uzbek prince who, with his brother ʿAlī Solṭān, joined Shah Ṭahmāsb’s camp in 943/1536-37 during the latter’s campaign in Khorasan against ʿObayd-Allāh Khan, the Uzbek ruler of Bukhara.

  • DĪN WA’L-ḤAYĀT, AL-

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a bi-weekly religious magazine published in Tabrīz, 1928-31, replacing another Tabrīz religious magazine, Taḏakkorāt-e dīnī.

  • DINAR

    Philippe Gignoux, Michael Bates

    a gold coin, in pre-Islamic times struck mainly for purposes of prestige. In Arabic of the classical Islamic period, the word dīnār had the double sense of a gold coin and of a monetary unit which might not be precisely embodied by actual coins.

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  • DĪNĀR, MALEK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Moḥammad (d. 1195), a leader of the Oghuz Turkmen in Khorasan and, in the latter years of the 12th century, ruler of Kermān.

  • DĪNĀRĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BAḴTĪĀRĪ.

  • DĪNAVAR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (occasionally vocalized Daynavar), in the first centuries of Islam an important town in Jebāl, now ruined.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA AḤMAD

    Charles Pellat

    b. Dāwūd b. Vanand (d. between 894 and 903), grammarian, lexicographer, astronomer, mathematician, and Islamic traditionist of Persian origin, who lived at Dīnavar and in several cities in Iraq in the 9th century.

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Ḥamdān b. Wahb b. Bešr (d. 902), traditionist and ḥāfeẓ (preserver of the Koranic text).

  • DĪNAVARĪ, ABŪ MOḤAMMAD ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Josef van Ess

    b. Mobārak (d. first half of the 10th century), author of a tafsīr (koranic exegesis) entitled al-Wāżeḥ fī tafsīr al-Qorʾān, which is preserved in several manuscripts.

  • DĪNĀVARĪYA

    Werner Sundermann

    in Manichean usage originally “the elect.”

  • DINKHA TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See DENḴĀ TEPE.

  • DINON

    Wolfgang Felix

    (fl. approximately 360-30 B.C.E.), author of a historical work on the Ancient Orient.

  • DĪNŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See IRANI, DINSHAH JIJIBHOY.

  • DIO CASSIUS

    Marie Louise Chaumont

    (more correctly, Cassius Dio; b. Nicea, Bithynia, ca. 160, d. Nicea, after 229), Roman official whose Rhomaikē Historia is important for the study of Parthian history.

  • DIO CHRYSOSTOM

    Cross-Reference

    See DIO COCCEIANUS.

  • DIO COCCEIANUS

    Roger Beck

    surnamed Chrysostom ("golden-mouthed"), a traveling scholar who in his 36th Oration (known as the “Borysthenian” or “Olbian” from its dramatic setting), written about 100 C.E., purports to summarize a hymn composed by Zoroaster and sung by the magi in secret rites.

  • DIODORUS SICULUS

    Ernst Badian

    Greek historian from Agyrium in Sicily, hence called Siculus (the Sicilian) who came to Rome in the middle of the first century B.C.E. and there wrote his Bibliotheca Historica, a universal history in forty books, from the origins to the age of Caesar.

  • DIODOTUS

    Osmund Bopearachchi

    satrap of Bactria-Sogdiana, who revolted against his Seleucid soverign Antiochus II and proclaimed himself king, thus laying the foundation of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom. The date of his revolt has been  placed between 256 and 239 B.C., the majority of scholars arguing for about the year 250.

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  • DIOGENES LAERTIUS

    Wolfgang Felix

    author of a biographically arranged history of Greek philosophy in ten books that also deals with the Persian Magi, especially in the first book on the origins of philosophy.

  • DIONYSIUS

    RüDIGER SCHMITT

    (Gk. Dionýsios) of Miletus, Greek historiographer, who may have lived in the 5th century B.C.E. and is said to have written a book about Persian history after the death of Darius I.

  • DIPLOMACY

    Cross-Reference

    See under individual countries; see also FOREIGN AFFAIRS.