Table of Contents

  • ATROPATENE

    Cross-Reference

    See AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History.

  • ATROPATES

    M. L. CHAUMONT

    the satrap of Media, commander of the troops from Media, Albania, and Sacasene at the battle of Gaugamela in 331 B.C.

  • ATRUŠAN

    J. R. Russell

    the Armenian word for “fire temple,” a loan-word from Parthian.

  • ATSÏZ B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ATSÏZ.

  • ATSÏZ ḠARČAʾĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    ruler of Ḵᵛārazm with the traditional title Ḵᵛārazmšāh, 521 or 522/1127 or 1128 to 551/1156.

  • ATTABI

    E. Sims

    one of many names for cloth used by medieval Islamic writers.

  • AṬṬĀR, FARĪD-AL-DĪN

    B. Reinert

    (1145 or 46-1221) Persian poet, Sufi, theoretician of mysticism, and hagiographer, was born and died in Nīšāpūr.

  • ʿAṬṬĀŠ

    J. van Ess

    Ismaʿili leader during the time of Sultan Barkīāroq (Berk-yaruq, d. 498/1104).

  • ATTAŠAMA

    M. Mayrhofer

    personal name in the Nuzi texts.

  • ĀTUR

    Cross-Reference

    "fire." See ĀDUR and ĀTAŠ.

  • AΘURĀ

    Cross-Reference

    Achaemenid province. See ASSYRIA.

  • ĀΘVIYA

    cross-reference

    in the Avestan Hōm Yast (Y. 9.7) the second mortal to press the haoma and the father of Θraētaona (Ferīdūn).

  • AUBERGINE

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDENJĀN.

  • AUDH

    Cross-Reference

    See AVADH.

  • AUGUSTINE

    G. Widengren

    prominent Christian theologian and philosopher, born 354 in Thagaste, Numidia.

  • AURELIUS VICTOR

    M. L. Chaumont

    born in Africa ca. 325/330, held high positions under Julian and Theodosius.

  • AUSTRIA i. Relations with Persia

    Helmut Slaby

    Diplomatic and commercial relations between Austria and Persia have a long history, stretching back to the sixteenth century.

  • AUSTRIA ii. IRANIAN STUDIES

    X. Tremblay and N. Rastegar

    The present entry is intended as a synthetic history of the organization of Iranian studies (1) up to 1918 in all the Habsburg “hereditary countries,” which included the present Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, also parts of Poland, Romania, and Ukraine, and (2) since 1918 in the Republic of Austria exclusively.

  • AUTIYĀRA

    R. Schmitt

    name of a district of the satrapy Armina of the Achaemenid empire.

  • AUTOPHRADATES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    name of several Achaemenid officials, especially the satrap of Lydia under the  Artaxerxes II, from 391 B.C. until the late 350s.