Table of Contents

  • ATTAŠAMA

    M. Mayrhofer

    personal name in the Nuzi texts.

  • ĀTUR

    Cross-Reference

    "fire." See ĀDUR and ĀTAŠ.

  • AΘURĀ

    Cross-Reference

    Achaemenid province. See ASSYRIA.

  • ĀΘVIYA

    cross-reference

    in the Avestan Hōm Yast (Y. 9.7) the second mortal to press the haoma and the father of Θraētaona (Ferīdūn).

  • AUBERGINE

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDENJĀN.

  • AUDH

    Cross-Reference

    See AVADH.

  • AUGUSTINE

    G. Widengren

    prominent Christian theologian and philosopher, born 354 in Thagaste, Numidia.

  • AURELIUS VICTOR

    M. L. Chaumont

    born in Africa ca. 325/330, held high positions under Julian and Theodosius.

  • AUSTRIA i. Relations with Persia

    Helmut Slaby

    Diplomatic and commercial relations between Austria and Persia have a long history, stretching back to the sixteenth century.

  • AUSTRIA ii. IRANIAN STUDIES

    X. Tremblay and N. Rastegar

    The present entry is intended as a synthetic history of the organization of Iranian studies (1) up to 1918 in all the Habsburg “hereditary countries,” which included the present Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, also parts of Poland, Romania, and Ukraine, and (2) since 1918 in the Republic of Austria exclusively.

  • AUTIYĀRA

    R. Schmitt

    name of a district of the satrapy Armina of the Achaemenid empire.

  • AUTOPHRADATES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    name of several Achaemenid officials, especially the satrap of Lydia under the  Artaxerxes II, from 391 B.C. until the late 350s.

  • AVA

    C. E. Bosworth

    the basic modern form of the name of two small towns of northern Persia, normally written Āba in medieval Islamic sources.

  • AVADĀNA

    R. E. Emmerick

    Sanskrit term for a category of Buddhist narrative literature.

  • AVADH

    R. B. Barnett

    an ancient cultural and administrative region lying between the Himalayas and the Ganges in North India, named after Ayodhyā, the setting of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana.

  • AVALOKITEŚVARA-DHĀRAṆĪ

    R. E. Emmerick

    name given by H. W. Bailey to a Buddhist text written in archaizing Late Khotanese, ending with a dhāraṇī (Skt. “spell, sacred formula”) preceded by homage to the bodhisattvas.

  • AVARAYR

    R. Hewsen

    a village in Armenia in the principality of Artaz southeast of the Iranian town of Mākū.

  • AVERY, PETER

    David Blow

    The most important part of Avery’s published works consists of translations of Persian poetry, in particular the ghazals (ḡazal) of Hafez, the Persian poet for whom he felt a special empathy. He began translating some of the ghazals while still a student at SOAS.

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  • AVESTA

    J. Kellens

    the holy book of the Zoroastrians.

  • AVESTAN GEOGRAPHY

    G. Gnoli

    Geographical references in the Avesta are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian plateau and on the Indo-Iranian border.