Table of Contents

  • AVESTAN LANGUAGE iv. AVESTAN SYNTAX

    Jean Kellens

    The only complete syntax of Avestan which is still usable today is H. Reichelt’sAwestisches Elementarbuch.

  • AVESTAN PEOPLE

    M. Boyce

    The term Avestan people is used here to include both Zoroaster’s own tribe, with that of his patron, Kavi Vištāspa, and those peoples settled in Eastern Iran.

  • AVIATION

    Abbas Atrvash

    Originally the Iranian government had approached the U.S. administration to negotiate the purchase of American military aircrafts and to organize the training of pilots and technicians. But the Americans rejected the request, arguing that such an agreement would violate the disarmement clauses of the post-World War I peace treaties.

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  • AVICENNA

    Multiple Authors

    celebrated philosopher and physician philosopher (d. 1037).

  • AVICENNA i. Introductory note

    M. Mahdi

    philosopher who began a movement away from explicitness about the central question of the relation between philosophy and religion.

  • AVICENNA ii. Biography

    D. Gutas

    philosopher whose biography presents the paradox that although more material is available for its study than is average for a Muslim scholar of his caliber, it has received little critical attention.

  • AVICENNA iii. Logic

    Sh. B. Abed

    philosopher whose works on logic are extant, and most of them have been published. With the exception of two Persian works, Dāneš-nāma-ye ʿalāʾī and Andar dāneš-e rag, all of his works are written in Arabic.

  • AVICENNA iv. Metaphysics

    M. E. Marmura

    a philosopher whose metaphysical system is one of the most comprehensive and detailed in the history of philosophy.

  • AVICENNA v. Mysticism

    D. Gutas

    a philosopher whose philosophical system, rooted in the Aristotelian tradition, is thoroughly rationalistic and intrinsically alien to the principles of Sufism as it had developed until his time.

  • AVICENNA vi. Psychology

    F. Rahman

    a psychology or doctrine of the soul that has an Aristotelian base with a strong Neoplatonic superstructure.

  • AVICENNA vii. Practical Sciences

    M. Mahdi

    an account of practical science that is laconic and dispersed in minor tracts and in the opening and closing passages of his comprehensive encyclopedic works.

  • AVICENNA viii. Mathematics and Physical Sciences

    G. Saliba

    referred to, in his encyclopedic work the Šefāʾ, as the mathematical sciences; includes both mathematics and astronomy.

  • AVICENNA ix. Music

    O. Wright

    from the discussion in his Ketāb al-najāt, Dāneš-nāma-ye ʿalāʾī, and Ketāb al-Šefāʾ. He considers music one of the mathematical sciences (the medieval quadrivium).

  • AVICENNA x. Medicine and Biology

    B. Musallam

    Nowhere in medieval thought was the contest between Galen and Aristotle as dramatic as in the works of Avicenna, where the two great traditions intersected. Avicenna wrote the medieval textbook of Galenic medicine the Qānūn (the Canon), as well as the central medieval statement of Aristotelian biology (the Ḥayawān, the biological section of the Šefāʾ).

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  • AVICENNA xi. Persian Works

    M. Achena

    only two works in Persian have come down to us: a short book Andar dāneš-e rag (On the science of the pulse), and a treatise on philosophy.

  • AVICENNA xii. The impact of Avicenna’s philosophical works on the West

    S. Van Riet

    Western European acquaintance with Avicenna began when Latin versions of some of his Arabic works came out in the mid-12th to late 13th centuries.

  • AVICENNA xiii. The influence of Avicenna on medical studies in the West

    U. Weisser

    From the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth century Avicenna held a high place in Western European medical studies.

  • ĀVĪŠAN

    R. A. Parsa

    wild thyme. Varieties in Iran are carminative, stomachic, diuretic, digestive, and flatulent. They may be used for liver and respiratory disorders.

  • AVROMAN

    D. N. MacKenzie

    a mountainous region on the western frontier of Persian Kurdistan.

  • AVROMAN DOCUMENTS

    D. N. MacKenzie

    three parchments found in a cave in the Kūh-e Sālān.