Table of Contents

  • ʿĀŠŪRĀʾ

    M. Ayoub

    tenth day of Moḥarram, the first month of the Islamic calendar; for Sunnis it is a day on which fasting is recommended, and for Shiʿites a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn.

  • ĀŠŪRĀDA

    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    (or Āšūrʾāda, ʿAšūrʾāda), formerly (until ca. 1308-09 Š./1930) three adjacent islands, now part of the end of the Mīānkāla peninsula of Māzandarān, at the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea.

  • ASWĀR

    P. O. Skjærvø

    (Middle Persian) “horseman.” In Old Persian asabāra designated the horseman as opposed to the foot-soldier.

  • ASYLUM

    Cross-Reference

    religious, secular, and extraterritorial. See BAST.

  • ʿAṬĀʾ SAMARQANDĪ

    D. Pingree

    author of a set of astronomical tables for an unidentified prince of the Yuan dynasty of China, 1362-63.

  • ATĀBAK

    C. Cahen

    Turkish atabeg, lit. “father-chief,” a Turkish title of rank which first appears, at least under this name, with the early Saljuqs.

  • ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM, AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    J. Calmard

    grand vizier under the last three Qajar kings.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN

    K. A. Luther

    an influential family of military slave origin, also called Ildegozids, ruled parts of Arrān and Azerbaijan from about 530/1135-36 to 622/1225.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E FĀRS

    B. Spuler

    princes of the Salghurid dynasty who ruled Fārs in the 6th/12th and 7th/13th centuries.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E LORESTĀN

    B. Spuler

    rulers of Lorestān, part of the Zagros highlands of southwestern Iran in the later middle ages. Lorestān had a mixed population of Lors, Kurds, and others.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E MARĀḠA

    K. A. Luther

     a family of local rulers of Marāḡa who ruled from the early 6th/12th century until 605/1208-09.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E YAZD

    S. C. Fairbanks

    a dynasty which governed Yazd in the 6th/12th century.

  • ATABAKI, PARVIZ

    Farhad Taheri

    (1928 - 2004), a Persian diplomat, literary scholar, translator, and editor.

  • ʿATABĀT

    H. Algar

    “thresholds,” more fully, ʿatabāt-e ʿalīyāt or ʿatabāt-e (or aʿtāb-emoqaddasa “the lofty or sacred thresholds,” the Shiʿite shrine cities of Iraq

  • ATABAY, CYRUS

    Saeid Rezvani

    (1929-1996), Iranian poet and translator who wrote poetry exclusively in German and translated works on Persian literature into German. 

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  • ATĀʾĪYA ORDER

    D. DeWeese

    a branch of the Yasavīya Sufi brotherhood especially active in Ḵᵛārazm from the 8th/14th century.

  • ĀṮĀR AL-BĀQĪA

    D. Pingree

     (The Chronology of Ancient Nations), a historical work by Bīrūnī, composed at the age of 27, in 1000 CE.

  • ĀṮĀR AL-BELĀD

    C. E. Bosworth

    the title of a geographical work composed in Arabic during the 7th/13th century by the Persian scholar Abū Yaḥyā Zakarīyāʾ b. Moḥammad Qazvīnī.

  • ĀṮĀR AL-WOZARĀʾ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    a biographical work on ministers and other officials, their policies and literary works, by Sayf al-dīn Ḥāǰǰī b. Neẓām ʿAqīlī, written at Herat between 1470-71 and 1486-87.

  • ĀṮĀR-E ʿAJAM

    M. Dabīrsīaqī

    a study of the geographical features and historical monuments of Fārs.