Table of Contents

  • AVICENNA vi. Psychology

    F. Rahman

    a psychology or doctrine of the soul that has an Aristotelian base with a strong Neoplatonic superstructure.

  • AVICENNA vii. Practical Sciences

    M. Mahdi

    an account of practical science that is laconic and dispersed in minor tracts and in the opening and closing passages of his comprehensive encyclopedic works.

  • AVICENNA viii. Mathematics and Physical Sciences

    G. Saliba

    referred to, in his encyclopedic work the Šefāʾ, as the mathematical sciences; includes both mathematics and astronomy.

  • AVICENNA i. Introductory note

    M. Mahdi

    philosopher who began a movement away from explicitness about the central question of the relation between philosophy and religion.

  • AVICENNA ix. Music

    O. Wright

    from the discussion in his Ketāb al-najāt, Dāneš-nāma-ye ʿalāʾī, and Ketāb al-Šefāʾ. He considers music one of the mathematical sciences (the medieval quadrivium).

  • AVICENNA x. Medicine and Biology

    B. Musallam

    In the works of Avicenna, the two great traditions,Galen and Aristotle, intersected. Avicenna wrote the medieval textbook of Galenic medicine the Qānūn (the Canon), as well as the central medieval statement of Aristotelian biology (the Ḥayawān, the biological section of the Šefāʾ).

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  • AVICENNA xi. Persian Works

    M. Achena

    only two works in Persian have come down to us: a short book Andar dāneš-e rag (On the science of the pulse), and a treatise on philosophy.

  • AVICENNA xii. The impact of Avicenna’s philosophical works on the West

    S. Van Riet

    Western European acquaintance with Avicenna began when Latin versions of some of his Arabic works came out in the mid-12th to late 13th centuries.

  • AVICENNA xiii. The influence of Avicenna on medical studies in the West

    U. Weisser

    From the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth century Avicenna held a high place in Western European medical studies.


    R. A. Parsa

    wild thyme. Varieties in Iran are carminative, stomachic, diuretic, digestive, and flatulent. They may be used for liver and respiratory disorders.


    D. N. MacKenzie

    a mountainous region on the western frontier of Persian Kurdistan.


    D. N. MacKenzie

    three parchments found in a cave in the Kūh-e Sālān.


    D. N. MacKenzie

    the dialect of Avroman, properly Hawrāmi, the most archaic of the Gōrāni group.


    M. J. McDermott

    a Shiʿite doctrinal work written in Baghdad.

  • AWAN

    M. W. Stolper

    name of a place in ancient western Iran, the nominal dynastic seat of Elamite rulers in the late third millennium B.C.


    W. C. Chittick

    a classic work on Sufism by Šehāb-al-dīn Sohravardī (1145-1234)


    W. Floor

    term used since 4th/10th century to denote extraordinary imposts of various kinds, the nature of which differed per area and historic period.


    J. Matīnī

    an important Persian writer of the late 6th/12th and early 7th/13th centuries.


    Z. Safa

    a famous mystic of the 6th/12th century.


    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (born ca. 673/1274-75 in Marāḡa and died there in 738/1338), a poet who flourished in the reign of Abū Saʿīd Bahādor Khan (r. 716/1316-736/1335).