Table of Contents

  • ĀTAŠ

    M. Boyce

    “fire” in Zoroastrianism. The hearth fire, providing warmth, light and comfort, was regarded by the ancient Iranians as the visible embodiment of the divinity Ātar, who lived among men as their servant and master. Fire was also present at their religious ceremonies.

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  • ĀTAŠ Journal

    N. Parvīn

    (Fire), a Persian journal of news and political comment, published in Tehran, 1946-60.

  • ĀTAŠ NIYĀYIŠN

    M. Boyce and F. M. Kotwal

    the fifth in a group of five Zoroastrian prayers, which is addressed to fire and its divinity.

  • ĀTAŠ, AḤMAD

    cross-reference

    See  ATEŞ, AHMED.

  • ĀTAŠ, Ḵᵛāja ʿAlī Ḥaydar

    M. Baqir

    late 18th to early 19th-century Indo-Muslim poet in Persian and Urdu.

  • ĀTAŠ-ZŌHR

    M. Boyce and F. M. Kotwal

    or ātaš-zōr, a Middle Persian term for the Zoroastrian ritual.

  • ĀTAŠDĀN

    M. Boyce

     “place of fire, fire-holder,” designates the altar-like repository for a sacred wood-fire in a Zoroastrian place of worship.

  • ATASHI, MANUCHEHR

    Saeed Rezaei

    Missing the bucolic backdrop of his childhood, Manucher Atashi soon dropped out ofschool and left the city to live in Čāh-kutāh, a village near Bušehr, where he worked as a shepherd and fell in love with a young girl, who eventually married another man and died at an early age.

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  • ĀTAŠKADA

    M. Boyce

     “house of fire,” a Zoroastrian term for a consecrated building in which there is an ever-burning sacred fire.

  • ATEŞ, AHMED

    Tahsin Yazici

    (1911-1966), Turkish orientalist and scholar of Persian literature.

  • ATHENAIOS OF NAUCRATIS

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    author of the Deipnosophistai, his only extant work, in which in about a hundred passages he deals with things Persian.

  • AṮĪR AḴSĪKATĪ

    Z. Safa

    Poet of the 6th/12th century with a distinctive style.

  • AṮĪR OWMĀNĪ

    Z. Safa

    Poet of the ʿErāqī (western Iranian) school of the 7th/13th century (d. 665/1266).

  • AṮĪR-AL-DĪN ABHARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABHARĪ SAMARQANDĪ, AṮĪR-AL-DĪN.

  • ATKINSON, James A.

    A. Karimi-Hakkak

    (1780­-1852), a notable British orientalist, a scholar of the Persian language and literature, and the translator of Persia literature.

  • ATOSSA

    R. Schmitt

    Achaemenid queen.

  • ʿAṬR

    F. Aubaile-Sallenave

    “perfume” (Arabic ʿeṭr, plur. ʿoṭūr; in Persian also ʿaṭrīyāt, perfumes), a Semitic term also attested in Syriac and Amharic.

  • ATRAK

    C. E. Bosworth

    river of northern Khorasan, flowing first northwest, and then southwest into the Caspian Sea.

  • ĀΘRAVAN-

    M. Boyce

    (Avestan) “priest” regularly used to designate the priests as a social “class,” one of the three into which ancient Iranian society was theoretically divided.

  • ĀTRƎVAXŠ

    W. W. Malandra

    (Mid. Pers ādurwaxš), one of the eight Zoroastrian priests (ratu) necessary for performance of the yasna ritual.