Table of Contents

  • ĀŠPAZĪ

    B. Fragner

    "cooking." The history of food consumption in Iran is primarily part of the history of agriculture and stockbreeding on the Iranian plateau.

  • ASPBED

    M. L. Chaumont

    “master of horses, chief of cavalry,” Parthian title attested in the Nisa documents and the inscription of Šāpūr I on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • ASPET

    C. Toumanoff

    Armenian title.

  • ʿAṢR-E ENQELĀB

    N. Parvīn

    a journal of news and political comment published at Tehran in 1333-1915.

  • ʿAṢR-E JADĪD

    N. Parvīn

    (New era), the name of several journals and a magazine published in Iran at various times.

  • ĀŠRAF GĪLĀNĪ

    M. Rahman

    (1870-1934), poet and leading journalist of the Constitutional era.

  • ĀŠRAF ḠILZAY

    D. Balland

    the Afghan chief who ruled as Shah over part of Iran from 1137/1725 to 1142/1729.

  • ĀŠRAF

    Cross-Reference

    town in Māzandarān. See BEHŠAHR.

  • ĀŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN

    M. Baqir

    (or FEḠĀN), poet writing in Persian and Urdu (1140-86/1727-72).

  • ĀŠRAFI

    B. Fragner

    term used from the mid-15th century for a gold coin first minted in Mamluk Egypt in 810/1407-08.