Table of Contents

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, FAŻLALLĀH

    H. Algar

    (d. 796/1394), founder of the Ḥorūfī religion.

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MAHDĪ KHAN

    J. R. Perry

    court secretary and historiographer to Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1148-60/1736-47).

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MOḤAMMAD AMĪN

    E. Kohlberg

     founder of the 17th-century Aḵbārī school.

  • AŠTARAK

    KAMRAN EKBAL

    a village in the Ābārān district about six miles northwest of Yerevan (Iravān) in a mountainous region of the Caucasus.

  • AŠTARJĀN

    R. Hillenbrand

    (OŠTORJĀN), name of a subdistrict (dehestān) and its chief village, lying southwest of Isfahan.

  • ĀSTARKĪ

    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    (or AŠTARKĪ), one sub-tribe of the six which presently constitute the Dūrkī tribe of the Haft Lang confederation of the Baḵtīārī people.

  • ASTAUENE

    Cross-Reference

    Parthian province to the north of Hyrcania (Gorgān). See OSTOVĀ.

  • ĀŠTĪĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    the name both of an administrative subdistrict (dehestān) and its chef-lieu in the First Province (ostān).

  • ĀŠTĪĀNI

    E. Yarshater

    the dialect of Āštīān, belongs to the group of “Central” dialects spoken in Kashan and Isfahan provinces and some adjacent areas.

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ḤASAN

    H. Algar

    (d. 1319/1901), late 19-century moǰtahed who played an important role in the campaign against the tobacco concession of 1309/1891.

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, MAHDĪ

    H. Algar

    known as Mīrzā Kūček (1306-1372/1888-89 to 1952-53), a scholar who excelled in both the traditional (manqūl) and rational (maʿqūl) sciences.

  • AŠTIŠAT

    M. Van Esbroeck

    religious center of pagan Armenia and first official Christian see.

  • ASTŌDĀN

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    “bone-receptacle, ossuary.” The term has an important place in the vocabulary of ancient Iranian funerary rites.

  • ASṬORLĀB

    D. Pingree

    The altitude of the sun or of the star is determined by an observation through the alidade on the back; the rim of the upper two halves of the back is graduated from 0° to 90° from the horizontal diameter (horizon) to the apex (zenith).

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  • ASTRAKHAN

    B. Spuler

    a town (Russian since 1556) on the river Volga.

  • ASTROLABE

    Cross-Reference

    See ASṬORLĀB.

  • ASTROLOGY AND ASTRONOMY IN IRAN

    D. Pingree, C. J. Brunner

    Highly relevant are the subjects Mithraism and Zurvanism. It is here assumed that the exposure of Zoroastrian priests to Near Eastern divination, from the Achaemenid period on, helped foster cosmological speculation; and this developed a body of myth around Zurwān “Time.” 

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  • ASTVAṰ.ƎRƎTA

    M. Boyce

    the Avestan name of the Saošyant, the future Savior of Zoroastrianism.

  • ASTWIHĀD

    M. F. Kanga

    the demon of death in the Avesta and later Zoroastrian texts.

  • ASTYAGES

    R. Schmitt

    the last Median king.