Table of Contents

  • KAKRAK

    Matteo Compareti

    a Buddhist site comprised of a group of caves, in Bāmyān Province, Afghanistan, discovered at the end of the 19th century.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ḴĀKSĀR

    Zahra Taheri

    a strictly popular order of Persian dervishes, favored by artisans and shopkeepers. The name “Ḵāksār” (lit. ‘dust-like’) was probably chosen to figuratively denote a lowly, humble, and modest person.

  • ḴĀKŠI

    Bahram Grami

    a medicinal plant from the mustard family. Two kinds have been identified, the common and the bitter one which is considered weed. The effects are believed to be on heart, voice, throat, and diarrhea.

  • KĀKUYIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    [KAKWAYHIDS], a dynasty of Deylamite origin that ruled in western Persia, Jebāl, and Kurdistan about 1008-51 as independent princes.

  • ḴALAF B. AḤMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    b. Moḥammad, Abu Aḥmad (d. 1009), Amir in Sistān of the “second line” of Saffarids, who ruled between 963 and 1003.

  • ḴALAJ

    Multiple Authors

    a tribe which originated in Turkistan and settled approximately 250 km to the southwest of Tehran. 

  • ḴALAJ i. TRIBE

    Pierre Oberling

    tribe originating from Turkistan, generally referred to as Turks but possibly Indo-Iranian.

  • ḴALAJ ii. Ḵalaji Language

    Michael Knüppel

    spoken by the Ḵalaj tribe, in the 1960s and 1970s numbering approximately 20,000 people.

  • KALĀNTAR

    Willem Floor

    “chief, leader,” from the late 15th century onwards, particularly the local official (mayor) in charge of the administration of a town.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ

    Habib Borjian

    (or Kalār-rostāq), and Kalārdašt, historical district in western Māzandarān. i. The District and Sub-District.  ii. The Dialect.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ i. The District and Sub-District

    Habib Borjian

    This predominantly mountainous district extends along the Caspian coast from the Namakābrud (Namakāvarud) river on the west to the Čālus river on the east.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The Caspian vernaculars spoken in Kalārestāq, together with those of Tonekābon district, may not be properly classified as either Māzandarāni or Gilaki but serve as a transition between these two language groups.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KALĀT-E NĀDERI

    Xavier de Planhol

    Several references to kalāt in the tragic episode of the young Forud in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma are thought to refer to this. Its earliest mention in historical accounts comes from the Mongol period, when the fourth Il-khan of Iran, Arḡun Khan built a defensive work at the south approach that still bears his name (“Gate of Arḡun”).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KALBĀSI

    Hamid Algar

    Ḥāj Moḥammad Ebrāhim (b. Isfahan, 1766; d. Isfahan, 1845), prominent Oṣuli jurist, influential in the affairs of Isfahan during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Moḥammad Shah.

  • ḴĀLEDI, Mehdi

    E. Naḵjavāni

    Persian violinist and songwriter (1919-1990). As a violinist, Ḵāledi was known for his command of traditional Persian music and its innovative interpretation. As a composer, he was admired for the range of his rhythmically varied and elegiac songs.

  • KALEMĀT-E MAKNUNA

    Moojan Momen

    (The Hidden Words), a collection of aphorisms (71 in Arabic and 82 in Persian) by Bahāʾ-Allāh on spiritual and moral themes, dating from 1274/1857-58 and considered one of his most important writings.

  • ḴĀLEQI, RUḤ-ALLĀH

    Hormoz Farhat

    (1906-1965),  Persian music educator, composer, and music scholar. Through his teaching, admiration for the polyphonic richness of Western music was transmitted to some of his pupils.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ḴĀLEṢIZĀDA, MOḤAMMAD B. MOḤAMMAD-MAHDI

    Mina Yazdani

    (1890-1963), a contemporary Iraqi-Iranian reformist cleric and political activist in anti-British protests and proponent of political power for the Shiʿite jurists in 20th-century Iran, who probably influenced Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KALHOR

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the southernmost part of Persian Kurdistan. The last of the great Kalhor chiefs was Dāwud Khan, who ruled the tribe in the early 1900s.

  • KALHOR, Mirzā Mohammad-Reżā

    Maryam Ekhtiar

    (1829-1892), one of the most prominent 19th-century Persian calligraphers, often compared to such great masters of nastaʿliq as Mir ʿAli Heravi and Mir ʿEmād Sayfi Qazvini.