Table of Contents


    Matteo Compareti

    a Buddhist site comprised of a group of caves, in Bāmyān Province, Afghanistan, discovered at the end of the 19th century.

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    Zahra Taheri

    a strictly popular order of Persian dervishes, favored by artisans and shopkeepers. The name “Ḵāksār” (lit. ‘dust-like’) was probably chosen to figuratively denote a lowly, humble, and modest person.


    Bahram Grami

    a medicinal plant from the mustard family. Two kinds have been identified, the common and the bitter one which is considered weed. The effects are believed to be on heart, voice, throat, and diarrhea.


    C. Edmund Bosworth

    [KAKWAYHIDS], a dynasty of Deylamite origin that ruled in western Persia, Jebāl, and Kurdistan about 1008-51 as independent princes.


    C. E. Bosworth

    b. Moḥammad, Abu Aḥmad (d. 1009), Amir in Sistān of the “second line” of Saffarids, who ruled between 963 and 1003.


    Multiple Authors

    a tribe which originated in Turkistan and settled approximately 250 km to the southwest of Tehran. 


    Pierre Oberling

    tribe originating from Turkistan, generally referred to as Turks but possibly Indo-Iranian.

  • ḴALAJ ii. Ḵalaji Language

    Michael Knüppel

    spoken by the Ḵalaj tribe, in the 1960s and 1970s numbering approximately 20,000 people.


    Willem Floor

    “chief, leader,” from the late 15th century onwards, particularly the local official (mayor) in charge of the administration of a town.


    Nojan Madinei

    (b. Zanjān, 22 March 1931; d. Tehran, 20 May 2016), painter, graphic designer, writer, and a pioneering illustrator of Iranian children’s books.


    Habib Borjian

    (or Kalār-rostāq), and Kalārdašt, historical district in western Māzandarān. i. The District and Sub-District.  ii. The Dialect.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ i. The District and Sub-District

    Habib Borjian

    This predominantly mountainous district extends along the Caspian coast from the Namakābrud (Namakāvarud) river on the west to the Čālus river on the east.

  • KALĀRESTĀQ ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The Caspian vernaculars spoken in Kalārestāq, together with those of Tonekābon district, may not be properly classified as either Māzandarāni or Gilaki but serve as a transition between these two language groups.

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    Xavier de Planhol

    Several references to kalāt in the tragic episode of the young Forud in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma are thought to refer to this. Its earliest mention in historical accounts comes from the Mongol period, when the fourth Il-khan of Iran, Arḡun Khan built a defensive work at the south approach that still bears his name (“Gate of Arḡun”).

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    Hamid Algar

    Ḥāj Moḥammad Ebrāhim (b. Isfahan, 1766; d. Isfahan, 1845), prominent Oṣuli jurist, influential in the affairs of Isfahan during the reigns of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Moḥammad Shah.

  • ḴĀLEDI, Mehdi

    E. Naḵjavāni

    Persian violinist and songwriter (1919-1990). As a violinist, Ḵāledi was known for his command of traditional Persian music and its innovative interpretation. As a composer, he was admired for the range of his rhythmically varied and elegiac songs.


    Moojan Momen

    (The Hidden Words), a collection of aphorisms (71 in Arabic and 82 in Persian) by Bahāʾ-Allāh on spiritual and moral themes, dating from 1274/1857-58 and considered one of his most important writings.


    Hormoz Farhat

    (1906-1965),  Persian music educator, composer, and music scholar. Through his teaching, admiration for the polyphonic richness of Western music was transmitted to some of his pupils.

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    Mina Yazdani

    (1890-1963), a contemporary Iraqi-Iranian reformist cleric and political activist in anti-British protests and proponent of political power for the Shiʿite jurists in 20th-century Iran, who probably influenced Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers.

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    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the southernmost part of Persian Kurdistan. The last of the great Kalhor chiefs was Dāwud Khan, who ruled the tribe in the early 1900s.