Table of Contents


    Burzine K. Waghmar

    Parsi scholar and educator. He was promoted in 1919 as a commissioner of the Indian Educational Service and taught mathematics in Poona and Bombay.


    Anna Livia Beelaert

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199).


    Anna Livia Beelaert

    (1127-1186/1199), major Persian poet and prose writer.

  • ḴĀQĀNI ŠERVĀNI ii. Works

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    a major Persian poet and prose writer (b. Šervān, ca. 521/1127; d. Tabriz, between 582/1186-87 and 595/1199). Ḵāqāni’s fame rests on his qaṣidas, of which, in Żiāʾ-al-Din Sajjādi’s edition, there are one hundred and thirty-two.


    J. T . P. de Bruijn

    a short maṯnavi by Sanāʾi of Ghazna (d. 1131), containing panegyric as well as satirical verses addressed to, or describing, people from various layers of Ghaznavid society.


    C. G. CERETI

    short prose work written in Middle Persian. It narrates the Sasanian king Ardašīr I’s life story—his rise to the throne, battle against the Parthian king Ardawān, and conquest of the empire. 


    Toshio Hayashi, Y. Yoshida

    or Khar Balgas “Black ruined city” in Mongolian. This entry consists of two sections: i. The site  ii. The inscription.

  • KARABALGASUN i. The Site

    Toshio Hayashi

    archeological site of a capital of the Uighur Khaghanate (second half of the 8th century to first half of the 9th century). Karabalgasun is located in the Orkhon valley, 320 km west of Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar), 30 km north of Karakorum.

  • KARABALGASUN ii. The Inscription

    Y. Yoshida

    The trilingual inscription at Karabalgasun, in Old Turkic, Sogdian, and Chinese, of the eighth Uighur qaghan in Mongolia commemorates the qaghan’s (Old Turkic ḵaḡan, qaḡan) own military achievements and those of his predecessors.


    Hubertus von Gall

    an ensemble of artificially cut rock chambers dated to the 4th or 3rd century BCE, in Kordestān Province, 20 km west of Takab. The site is of considerable importance because of its Greek inscription, one of the very few examples preserved in situ in Persia.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • KARĀʾI

    P. Oberling

    a Turkic-speaking tribe of Azerbaijan, Khorasan, Kermān and Fārs.


    Multiple Authors

    a town in Tehran province, located 36 km west of the city of Tehran on the western bank of the Karaj River (lat 35° 46ʹ N, long 50° 49ʹ E; elev., 1,360 m).

  • KARAJ i. Modern City

    Bernard Hourcade

    The area of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age at Tepe Khurvin, and the Iron Age at Kalāk on the left bank of the Karaj River.

  • KARAJ ii. Population

    Habibollah Zanjani

    Since the 1976 census, when Tehran was no longer counted within the boundaries of Central (Markazi) province and formed its own province, Karaj has been one of its sub-provinces. Originally a relatively large sub-province, Karaj was reduced to its current size when its former townships of Sāvojbolāq, Šahriār, Rebāṭ Karim, and Naẓarābād gradually separated.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.


    See AMIR KABIR DAM (forthcoming online).


    Bernard Hourade

    the second major permanent river of the central Iranian plateau after the Zāyandarud river.


    Rula Jurdi Abisaab

    Nur-al-Din Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAli b. Ḥosayn b. ʿAbd-al-ʿĀli, known as Moḥaqqeq al-Ṯāni or Moḥaqqeq ʿAli (1464-1533), a major Imamite jurist.


    Erik S. Ohlander

    “(saintly) marvel, wonder, or miracle” in Arabic (pl. karāmāt).


    William Malandra

    (or Karpan), designation of members of a class of daivic priests opposed to the religion of Zarathustra.


    Meir Litvak

    a city in Iraq, situated about 90 km southwest of Baghdad. It is one of the four Shiʿite shrine cities (with Najaf, Kāẓemayn, and Sāmarrāʾ) in Iraq known in Shʿite Islam as ʿatabāt-e ʿaliāt or ʿatabāt-e moqaddasa.