Table of Contents

  • KAMĀL-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḠAFFĀRI

    A. Ashraf with Layla Diba

    (ca. 1859–1940), Iranian painter of the European academic style during the late Qajar and early Pahlavi periods. He descended from a family that had produced a number of artists since the Afsharid period, including his paternal great-grandfather, Mirzā Abu’l-Ḥasan Mostawfi, a court painter during the reign of Nāder Shah Afshar (r. 1736-47) and Karim Khan Zand (r. 1750-79).

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  • KAMĀLI BOḴĀRĀʾI

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    , ʿAmid Kamāl-al-Din, a court poet, musician, and calligrapher at the court of Sultan Sanjar, the Saljuqid king (r. 1097-1118), during his rule in Khorasan.

  • KAMĀNČA

    Stephen Blum

    The kamānča has a spherical sound cavity of mulberry or walnut wood, covered with sheepskin. Most instruments have four steel strings and are played with a horsehair bow. As the name of the Iraqi joza suggests, its sound cavity is made of coconut, covered with sheepskin or fish skin.

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  • KĀMI AḤMED ÇELEBI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlī

    Ottoman scholar, judge, writer, and translator. He was born in Edirne (his birth date is unknown) and known as Mesnevi-hānzāde (Maṯnawi-ḵvānzāda).

  • KĀMI MEHMED-I KARAMĀNI

    Osman G. Özgüdenlī

    Ottoman scholar, judge, poet, and translator. He was born in Karaman (Qaramān) in central Anatolia.

  • ḴAMĪS DYNASTY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E ḴAMĪS.

  • KĀMRĀN B. SHAH MAḤMUD

    Christine Nöelle-Karimi

    Sadōzāy ruler of Herat (r. 1826-42). His career coincided with the waning of Sadōzāy power and the rise of the Moḥammadzāy dynasty in the 1820s.

  • KĀMRĀN MIRZĀ

    Sunil Sharma

    In his Haft eqlim, Aḥmad Amin-Rāzi devotes a long section to Kāmrān Mirzā in which he extols the prince’s bravery, generosity, and piety. The historian Badāʾuni also praises him as a courageous and learned man, renowned as a poet, but who was led to ruin by excessive drinking, while Abu’l-Fażl portrays him as a treacherous ingrate.

  • ḴAMSA OF NEẒĀMI

    Domenico Parrello

    the quintet of narrative poems for which Neẓāmi Ganjavi (1141-1209) is universally acclaimed.

  • ḴAMSA TRIBE

    Pierre Oberling

    a tribal confederacy formed in the 19th century comprising five large tribes in Fārs province.

  • ḴAMSA-ye AMIR ḴOSROW

    Sunil Sharma

    a quintet of poems in the mathnawi form written by Amir Ḵosrow between 1298 and 1302, as a response to Neẓāmi’s immensely popular Panj ganj (Five Treasures).

  • ḴAMSA-ye JAMĀLI

    Paola Orsatti

    a suite of five mathnawis, composed in response to the Ḵamsa by Neẓāmi (1141-1209). This Ḵamsa exists in a unique manuscript in the India Office Library, London.

  • KAMSARAKAN

    C. Toumanoff

    Armenian noble family that was an offshoot of the Kāren Pahlav, one of the seven great houses of Iran claiming Arsacid origin.

  • Ḵān-e Ārezu, Serāj-al-din ʿAli (ARTICLE 2)

    Prashant Keshavmurthy

    (1688-1756), a Persian-language philologist, lexicographer, literary critic and poet from North India.

  • ḴĀNĀ QOBĀDI

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek and Parwin Mahmoudweyssi

    (fl. ca.1700-1759 or 1778), Gurāni poet and one of the major members of the school of Gurāni poetry that is said to have been founded by Yusof Yaskā.

  • ḴĀNA-YE EDRISIHĀ

    SOHEILA SAREMI

    Ḵāna-ye Edrisihā is told from the alternating perspectives of four people: Mrs. Edrisi, symbol of a lost aristocracy; her daughter Laqā, trapped in a tangled web of old beliefs, traditions, and customs; her intellectual grandson Vahhāb, living a miserable life in an ocean of books; and Yāvar, the faithful servant, living in past memories.

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  • KANAF

    Bahram Grami

    (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), an annual herbaceous plant of the Malvaceae family, yielding a soft fiber from the stem bark. Its fiber is used primarily for making gunnysacks and burlap. The first gunny mill (guni bāfi) in Persia was established in 1933 in Rašt by the private sector.

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  • ḴĀNAQĀH

    Gerhard Böwering and Matthew Melvin-Koushki

    an Islamic institution and physical establishment, principally reserved for Sufi dervishes to meet, reside, study, and assemble and pray together as a group in the presence of a Sufi master (Arabic, šayḵ, Persian, pir), who is teacher, educator, and leader of the group.

  • KANDAHAR

    Multiple Authors

    the second most important city in the country and the capital of Kandahar province. This entry is divided into seven parts: i. Historical geography to 1979.  ii. Pre-Islamic monuments and remains. iii. Early Islamic period.  iv. From the Mongol invasion through the Safavid era.  v. In the 19th century.  vi. 20th century, 1901-73.  vii. From 1973 to the present.

  • KANDAHAR i. Historical Geography to 1979

    Xavier de Planhol

    The oasis clearly was destined to give rise to a major city that would control these rich lands with their grain fields, orchards, and gardens and manage the irrigation system they required. This urban center naturally was situated near the top of the alluvial cone, where the Arḡandāb river runs from the mountains.

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