Table of Contents

  • Ḵān-e Ārezu, Serāj-al-din ʿAli (ARTICLE 2)

    Prashant Keshavmurthy

    (1688-1756), a Persian-language philologist, lexicographer, literary critic and poet from North India.

  • ḴĀN-E ḴĀNĀN

    Cross-Reference

    (d. 1627), Mughal general and statesman. See ʿABD-AL-RAḤĪM ḴĀN ḴĀNĀN.

  • ḴĀNĀ QOBĀDI

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek and Parwin Mahmoudweyssi

    (fl. ca.1700-1759 or 1778), Gurāni poet and one of the major members of the school of Gurāni poetry that is said to have been founded by Yusof Yaskā.

  • ḴĀNA-YE EDRISIHĀ

    SOHEILA SAREMI

    Ḵāna-ye Edrisihā is told from the alternating perspectives of four people: Mrs. Edrisi, symbol of a lost aristocracy; her daughter Laqā, trapped in a tangled web of old beliefs, traditions, and customs; her intellectual grandson Vahhāb, living a miserable life in an ocean of books; and Yāvar, the faithful servant, living in past memories.

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  • KANAF

    Bahram Grami

    (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), an annual herbaceous plant of the Malvaceae family, yielding a soft fiber from the stem bark. Its fiber is used primarily for making gunnysacks and burlap. The first gunny mill (guni bāfi) in Persia was established in 1933 in Rašt by the private sector.

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  • ḴĀNAQĀH

    Gerhard Böwering and Matthew Melvin-Koushki

    an Islamic institution and physical establishment, principally reserved for Sufi dervishes to meet, reside, study, and assemble and pray together as a group in the presence of a Sufi master (Arabic, šayḵ, Persian, pir), who is teacher, educator, and leader of the group.

  • KANDAHAR

    Multiple Authors

    the second most important city in the country and the capital of Kandahar province. This entry is divided into seven parts: i. Historical geography to 1979.  ii. Pre-Islamic monuments and remains. iii. Early Islamic period.  iv. From the Mongol invasion through the Safavid era.  v. In the 19th century.  vi. 20th century, 1901-73.  vii. From 1973 to the present.

  • KANDAHAR i. Historical Geography to 1979

    Xavier de Planhol

    The oasis clearly was destined to give rise to a major city that would control these rich lands with their grain fields, orchards, and gardens and manage the irrigation system they required. This urban center was situated near the top of the alluvial cone, where the Arḡandāb river runs from the mountains.

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  • KANDAHAR ii. Pre-Islamic Monuments and Remains

    Gérard Fussman

    The ancient city of Kandahar lay along the Qaytul ridge, west of the modern city and was emptied of its population by Nāder Shah in 1738.

  • KANDAHAR iii. Early Islamic Period

    Minoru Inaba

    Kandahar and its surroundings have been an important junction connecting Iran and India since ancient times.

  • KANDAHAR v. In the 19th Century

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E), the second most important in the country and the capital of Kandahar province.

  • KANDAHAR vi. 20th Century, 1901-73

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E). Kandahar expanded substantially during the second half of the 20th century by attracting rural labor and by developing new residential quarters (šahr-e naw) and public buildings. 

  • KANDAHAR vii. From 1973 to the Present

    Antonio Giustozzi

    Mohammad Daoud Khan took power in July 1973, his ban on party political activities hit Kandahar too.

  • KANDAHAR iv. From The Mongol Invasion Through the Safavid Era

    Rudi Matthee and Hiroyuki Mashita

    There are various reasons why, despite the manifest weaknesses of the Safavid army, Kandahar surrendered to the Safavids.

  • ḴANDAQ

    Michael G. Morony

    a Persian loanword in Arabic meaning a trench or a moat (lit. “dug”), possibly also a wall or an enclosure.

  • KANGA, MANECK FARDOONJI

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    (1908-1988), Parsi scholar of Zoroastrianism and Iranian languages. He held the position of Secretary of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute in Bombay for 15 years and edited its Journal. He served as Professor of Avestan Studies at the University of Bombay. 

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  • KANGARLU

    P. OBERLING

    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan and the Qom-Verāmin region of central Persia. 

  • KANGAVAR

    Wolfram Kleiss

    town in eastern Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, identical with a trace of the silk road. Isidorus of Charax (1st century CE) referred to it as Congobar and mentioned a temple of Anāhitā (Anaitis) there. The site has ruins of debated date and nature.

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  • KANGDEZ

    Pavel Lurje

    (lit. “Fortress of Kang,”), a mythical, paradise-like fortress in Iranian folklore. There are different and often contradictory descriptions of Kang, Kangdež and several similar place names in Pahlavi literature and the epics of the Islamic period.

  • KANI, ḤĀJ MOLLĀ ʿALI

    Hamid Algar

    Shiʿi scholar whose power and prominence in the affairs of Tehran for more than four decades earned him the semi-official title of raʾis al-mojtahedin (“chief of the mojtaheds”), as well as accusations of inordinate greed.

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