Table of Contents

  • HERMELIN, AXEL ERIC

    Bo Utas

    (1860-1944), Swedish author and prolific translator of Persian works of literature.

  • HERMENEUTICS

    B. Todd Lawson

    of pre-modern Islamic and Shiʿite exegesis, the principles and methods, or philosophy, of scriptural interpretation, as distinct from the act of interpretation.

  • HERMES

    Albert de Jong

    Hermes was identified with the Roman god Mercury, god of commerce and trade, and came to be symbolized with the moneybag. In Egypt, he was identified with the god Thoth; he was the source of a large number of writings outlining the ways in which the soul could be released from the bonds of matter.

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  • HERMIAS

    cross-reference

    See ḴOSROW I, forthcoming online.

  • HERMIPPUS OF SMYRNA

    J. Wiesehöfer

    third-century BCE Greek grammarian who wrote on “Zoroaster’s writings.”

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin, Anatol Ivanov

    The State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg, Russia, possesses some of the richest collections of Persian art.

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM i. COLLECTION OF THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin

    Among the most ancient objects of Iranian art in the Hermitage collection are 55 Elamite painted vessels of the late 4th-3rd millennium BCE.

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  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM ii. COLLECTION OF THE ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Anatol Ivanov

    Persian art from the advent of Islam until the beginning of the 20th century is well represented in the State Hermitage Museum. However, not all periods in this 1400-year time-span are represented equally well, because of the way the collection developed.

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  • HERODIAN

    Philip Huyse

    (fl. shortly before 250 CE), historian, probably a native of Syria, who wrote a Greek history of the Roman emperors from the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE to the accession of Gordian III in 238.

  • HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    author of the Histories, the first monumental Greek work in prose which is still extant (5th cent. BCE).

  • HERODOTUS i. INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORIES

    Robert Rollinger

    Philologists of Hellenistic times divided Herodotus’s opus magnum into nine books and subdivided these into chapters.

  • HERODOTUS ii. THE HISTORIES AS A SOURCE FOR PERSIA AND PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    An evaluation of Herodotus’s treatment of Persia and the Persians is a difficult task. The subject is not limited to a specific logos but is ubiquitous in the Histories.

  • HERODOTUS iii. DEFINING THE PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    In the Histories the Persians are sometimes not exactly distinguishable from other peoples of their empire, especially when the Greeks’ opponents are simply qualified as “Persians.” The Persians generally are run together with the Medes.

  • HERODOTUS iv. CYRUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The historical past takes on clearer outline beginning with the figure of Cyrus the Great. With him the Persians too are introduced into world history.

  • HERODOTUS v. CAMBYSES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, is first described by Herodotus at a time when his father’s reign was already about to end.

  • HERODOTUS vi. DARIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Herodotus connects the beginning of Darius’s reign with a deep break in the history of Persian royalty. He describes the rule of the Magus and palace administrator Patizeithes as an attempt at usurpation.

  • HERODOTUS vii. XERXES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The young king inherited a solid empire, which was greater than any before in history. The subsequent great war of the years 480 and 479 Herodotus describes as an immense struggle, to which he devotes a third of his work.

  • HERODOTUS viii. MARDONIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    After Xerxes’ retreat, Mardonius prepared his offensive on land. He also wanted the higher powers to be on his side.

  • HERODOTUS ix. TIGRANES AND THE BATTLE OF MYCALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After Salamis, the escaped Persian fleet for a while ceased playing any further part. During the winter it was anchored in part at Cyme, and in part before Samos.

  • HERODOTUS x. ARTAYCTES AND THE FINALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After the battle of Mycale, the Greeks advanced as far as the Hellespont, where they found that Xerxes’ bridge was already destroyed.