Table of Contents

  • HERMIPPUS OF SMYRNA

    J. Wiesehöfer

    third-century BCE Greek grammarian who wrote on “Zoroaster’s writings.”

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin, Anatol Ivanov

    The State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg, Russia, possesses some of the richest collections of Persian art.

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM i. COLLECTION OF THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin

    Among the most ancient objects of Iranian art in the Hermitage collection are 55 Elamite painted vessels of the late 4th-3rd millennium BCE.

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  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM ii. COLLECTION OF THE ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Anatol Ivanov

    Persian art from the advent of Islam until the beginning of the 20th century is well represented in the State Hermitage Museum. However, not all periods in this 1400-year time-span are represented equally well, because of the way the collection developed. It was put together only after the establishment of the Oriental Department in 1920.

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  • HERODIAN

    Philip Huyse

    (fl. shortly before 250 CE), historian, probably a native of Syria, who wrote a Greek history of the Roman emperors from the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE to the accession of Gordian III in 238.

  • HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    author of the Histories, the first monumental Greek work in prose which is still extant (5th cent. BCE).

  • HERODOTUS i. INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORIES

    Robert Rollinger

    Philologists of Hellenistic times divided Herodotus’s opus magnum into nine books and subdivided these into chapters.

  • HERODOTUS ii. THE HISTORIES AS A SOURCE FOR PERSIA AND PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    An evaluation of Herodotus’s treatment of Persia and the Persians is a difficult task. The subject is not limited to a specific logos but is ubiquitous in the Histories.

  • HERODOTUS iii. DEFINING THE PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    In the Histories the Persians are sometimes not exactly distinguishable from other peoples of their empire, especially when the Greeks’ opponents are simply qualified as “Persians.” The Persians generally are run together with the Medes.

  • HERODOTUS iv. CYRUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The historical past takes on clearer outline beginning with the figure of Cyrus the Great. With him the Persians too are introduced into world history.

  • HERODOTUS v. CAMBYSES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, is first described by Herodotus at a time when his father’s reign was already about to end.

  • HERODOTUS vi. DARIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Herodotus connects the beginning of Darius’s reign with a deep break in the history of Persian royalty. He describes the rule of the Magus and palace administrator Patizeithes as an attempt at usurpation.

  • HERODOTUS vii. XERXES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The young king inherited a solid empire, which was greater than any before in history. The subsequent great war of the years 480 and 479 Herodotus describes as an immense struggle, to which he devotes a third of his work.

  • HERODOTUS viii. MARDONIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    After Xerxes’ retreat, Mardonius prepared his offensive on land. He also wanted the higher powers to be on his side.

  • HERODOTUS ix. TIGRANES AND THE BATTLE OF MYCALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After Salamis, the escaped Persian fleet for a while ceased playing any further part. During the winter it was anchored in part at Cyme, and in part before Samos.

  • HERODOTUS x. ARTAYCTES AND THE FINALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After the battle of Mycale, the Greeks advanced as far as the Hellespont, where they found that Xerxes’ bridge was already destroyed.

  • HERODOTUS xi. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Robert Rollinger

    This article constitutes a selected biography of Herodotus.

  • HERON

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪTĪMĀR.

  • HERON-ALLEN, EDWARD

    Joan Navarre

    Although Heron-Allen did not have a full formal education, his intellectual curiosity and passion for learning never waned, as illustrated by the long list of hobbies and interests in his entry in Who’s Who: “Persian literature; Marine Zoology; Meteorology; Heraldry; Bibliography; Occasional Essays and Scientific Romances; Auricula and Asparagus Culture.”

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  • HERTEL, JOHANNES

    Almut Hintze

    Hertel’s lasting contributions to scholarship are his earlier works on Sanskrit narrative literature and its transmission. They culminated in the publication of a four-volume edition of the Pañcatantra in the Harvard Oriental Series, vols. 11-14 (1908-15). After his appointment to the Indology chair in Leipzig, he turned to Vedic studies and, from 1924, to Avestan.

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