Table of Contents

  • HNČʿAK

    Aram Arkun

    colloquial term for members of the Social Democratic Hnčʿakean Party [SDHP], founded in Switzerland by Russian Armenians in 1887, with  branches in Persia, the Russian empire, the Ottoman empire, and elsewhere.

  • ḤOBAYŠ B. EBRĀHIM B. MOḤAMMAD TEFLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    author of numerous scientific works who lived in Anatolia (d. ca. 1203-04).

  • ḤOḎEQ, JUNAYDOLLO MAḴDUM

    Keith Hitchins

    (ḤĀḎEQ, JONAYD-ALLĀH; b. mid-1780s; killed 1843), one of the leading Tajik poets of his time.

  • HODIVALA, SHAHPURSHAH HORMASJI DINSHAHJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (d. 1944), professor of literature, history, and political economy,  best known for his works on Parsi history and on numismatics.

  • HODIVALA, SHAPURJI KAVASJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (1870-1931), scholar of Avestan and Zoroastrian studies.

  • ḤODUD AL-ʿĀLAM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a concise but very important Persian geography of the then known world, Islamic and non-Islamic, begun in 982-83 by an unknown author from the province of Guzgān (in northern Afghanistan).

  • HOERNLE, AUGUSTUS FREDERIC RUDOLF

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    philologist of Indian languages and decipherer of Khotanese (1841-1918).

  • HOFFMANN, KARL

    Johanna Narten

    Hoffmann was mainly interested in Indo-Iranian studies, which he did not conceive of as a mere combination of Indology and Iranian studies, but as a distinct subject comprising historical philology and comparative linguistics. His studies are essentially devoted to Vedic, transmitted in India, and to Avestan and Old Persian on the Iranian side.

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  • HOJIR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    in traditional Iranian history, a hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān.

  • ḤOJJAT

    Maria Dakake

    (“proof or argument”), a term used as: (1) a line of argument in debate; (2) designation of the Shiʿite Imams;  (3) an epithet of the Twelfth Imam; (4) a high official in the Ismaʿili missionary activities

  • ḤOJJAT-AL-ESLĀM

    Hamid Algar

    (lit. Proof of Islam), a title awarded to Shiʿite scholars, originally as an honorific but later as a means of indicating their status in the hierarchy of the learned.

  • ḤOJJATIYA

    Mahmoud Sadri

    a Shiʿite religious lay association founded in 1953 by the charismatic cleric Shaikh Maḥmud Ḥalabi to defend Islam against the Bahai missionary activities.

  • HOJVIRI, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALI

    Gerhard Böwering

    B. ʿOṮMĀN B. ʿALI AL-ḠAZNAVI AL-JOLLĀBI (d. ca. 1071-72), author of the Kašf al-maḥjub, the most celebrated early Persian Sufi treatise.

  • HOLDICH, THOMAS HUNGERFORD

    Denis Wright

    As head of the Baluchistan Survey Party from 1883, Holdich organized surveys of south Baluchistan and Makran as far as Jask and Bandar ʿAbbās. In 1884 he headed the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission’s survey party; in 1896 he was the chief British Commissioner on the Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission.

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  • ḤOLWI, JAMĀL-AL-DIN MAḤMUD

    Tahsin Yazi

    biographer of the leaders of the Ḵalwati Sufi order and minor poet (1574-1654).

  • HŌM

    cross-reference

    See HAOMA.

  • HŌM YAŠT

    W. W. Malandra

    name given to a section of the Avestan Yasna, namely, Y. 9-11.11. It is central to the ritual and is recited prior to the priestly consumption of the parahaoma (Pahl. parāhōm).

  • HOMĀM-AL-DIN

    William L. Hanaway and Leonard Lewisohn

    13th-century Persian poet, best known for his ḡazals, which follow those of Saʿdi in style and tone.

  • HŌMĀN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    son of Vēsa, in Iranian traditional history one of the most celebrated heroes of Turān.

  • HOMĀY ČEHRZĀD

    Jalil Doostkhah

    according to Iranian traditional history, a Kayānid queen; she was daughter, wife, and successor to the throne of Bahman, son of Esfandiār.