ii. COLLECTION OF THE ISLAMIC PERIOD
Persian art from the advent of Islam until the beginning of the 20th century is well represented in the State Hermitage Museum. The total number of artifacts is not known precisely, because the collection has never been fully documented; only two specialized catalogues have been published so far.
However, not all periods in this 1400-year time-span are represented equally well, because of the way the collection developed. It was put together only after the establishment of the Oriental Department in 1920. At that time the museums in St. Petersburg underwent a thorough process of reorganization and specialization, in the course of which the medieval Persian collections were consolidated at the Hermitage. The museum also acquired Persian artifacts from Dāḡestān (the Kubachi settlement), but no archeological excavations were undertaken, nor were purchases made of objets d’art in Persia itself.
Plate I. Figure of a horse, 10th century. Bronze/brass, height 36 cm, length 42 cm.
Plate II. Ewer, 12th-early 13th century. Bronze/brass, silver, height 36.5 cm.
During the first two and a half centuries after the spread of Islam, a new form of art was beginning to take shape in the lands under the rule of the Omayyad and the ʿAbbasid dynasties, whose major political centers lay to the west of Persia. There are very few examples from this period at the Hermitage, but silver artifacts from the 7th-9th centuries testify to the continuity of a strong Sasanian artistic tradition within Persia. The earliest examples of Islamic art as such in this collection are from the 10th century.
The history of Persian art between the 10th and 19th centuries is usually classified according to dynasty, rather than stylistic evolution. Although this type of classification is becoming outdated and has its shortcomings, no other system has yet gained wide acceptance. In this article the objets d’art in the Hermitage collection are reviewed, in turn, according to their medium and material as well as their age.
Plate III. Water jug, early 13th century. Bronze, silver, height 35 cm.
Plate IV. Eight tiles, early 14th century. Faience, each tile height 15 cm, width 15 cm.
Plate V. Dervish’s kaškul, 19th century. Faience, glaze-painted with blue, brown and black paint, height 12 cm, length 22.5 cm.
This is the best collection of Persian artifacts at the Hermitage, covering the entire period from the 10th to the beginning of the 20th century.
Bronze/brass. The items made of bronze or brass (no laboratory analysis of the alloys has been conducted so far) make up the core of the metalwork collection, numbering more than 650 items in total, including fragments. The group of Khorasan bronzes produced between the 11th and the beginning of the 13th century is the most numerous, consisting of more than 220 items, many of which are embellished with inlaid designs in copper and silver. It includes such well-known objets d’art as the 542/1148 pen-case (qalamdān) produced by the master craftsman ʿOmar b. Fażl b. Yusof al-Bayy, which is inscribed with verses of Persian poetry; the famous vessel from Herat, made in 559/1163 by the craftsmen Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Waḥid and Masʿud b. Aḥmad Naqqāš; the 11th-century lynx-shaped, open-work incense burner, which is inscribed with the name of the craftsman (or owner?) ʿAli b. Moḥammad Tāji; the famous water vessel in the shape of a female zebu with its calf and a lion, which was cast in 603/1206 by the master craftsman ʿAli b. Moḥammad b. Abu’l-Qāsem Naqqāš.
The next chronological group comprises about 80 artifacts from the second half of the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century, with inlaid designs in gold and silver. Noteworthy among these is a candlestick from 725/1325, which is the work of the master craftsman Ruḥ-al-Din Ṭāher, a vessel from 733/1332-33 made by Moḥammad-Šāh Širāzi, and a vessel made in the 1340s for Abu Esḥāq Enju. Most of the items in this group were probably made in Širāz during the 14th and 15th centuries, although future investigations might attribute some of them to other centers of production.
The third group, which is catalogued, consists of 172 copper and bronze/brass items dating from the mid-14th to the mid-18th century. It is the largest museum collection of artifacts from this period in the world. During that time gold and silver inlaid designs gradually disappeared, and Arabic inscriptions were replaced by verses of the Persian verse of Saʿdi, Ḥāfeẓ, Qāsem-al-Anwār, and Kātebi Toršizi, as well as less famous poets. Nineteen of these artifacts bear the exact date of their production, and five are inscribed with the names of the craftsmen who made them. One set of items in this group was made in Khorasan between the 1450s and the 1530s, but in most cases the place of production has not yet been determined.
Plate VI. Feast in the Open Air, by Reżā ʿAbbāsi, early 17th century. Two miniatures, both enclosed in a yellow frame and backed on pink card; paper, gouache, gold, left half 26.2x16.5 cm.
The fourth group represents the period from the second half of the 18th to the beginning of the 20th century. There is a sharp decline in the quality of copper and bronze/brass items produced after the mid-18th century, and a marked change in their form and design, as well as in their ornamentation and the type of inscriptions that were made. The Hermitage has more than 200 such items, which still await serious study, as is the case with other collections of this kind around the world.
Silver and gold. Very few artifacts of precious metals have been preserved. In the Hermitage collection there is a small silver plate from the beginning of the 11th century, six silver vessels from the 11th-12th centuries, five silver bracelets from the 12th century, gold and silver jewelry from the 13th century (found in a hoard in the Gorgān region at the beginning of the 20th century), a silver medallion from the second half of the 16th century, a zinc basin embellished with precious stones and gold inlays from the second half of the 16th century, a small golden cup and trays with enamel ornamentation from the first half of the 18th century, twelve gold and enamel artifacts from the 19th century, a small group of silver objects from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, some of which were produced by the master craftsman Jaʿfar, and a large silver tray made by the master craftsman Ḥāj Sayyed Moḥammad ʿOrayżi Eṣfahāni and presented to the Hermitage on the occasion of the Third Congress on Iranian Art and Archeology held in Leningrad in 1935.
Steel. The museum has steel open-work door decorations from the 17th century, which feature quotations from the Koran (13:24 and 10:63), as well as a group of about twenty items from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, all of which were either made by Ḥājī ʿAbbās or produced at his workshop.
Ceramics. This Persian art form is represented very unevenly in the collection of the Hermitage. There is almost no pottery dating from the 10th to the beginning of the 13th century. The Mongol era (1256-1335 C.E.) is represented only by some 20 objects, which include a few items and fragments of lusterware, and utensils with enamel decorations. However, there is a very good collection of luster tiles, like the specimens from the Emām-zāda Yaḥyā mausoleum in Varāmin (more than 1,000 items, although most of them are only fragments), as well as tiles tinted with cobalt and other colorants.
There are very few examples of fourteenth-century ceramics, but the museum boasts a magnificent collection of pottery from the period between the 15th and the beginning of the 18th century. This group is remarkable for both the quality and the quantity of the artifacts, which number around 1,000 items. Only the Victoria and Albert Museum in London has a collection to rival this one. The exhibits of the so called “Timurid era,” dating from the period between the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century, are also worthy of note; they include a dish from Mašhad, dating from 878/1473-74, which is inscribed with Persian verse. There is also a good representation of the various ceramic production centers of the Safavid period (16th-17th centuries).
Plate VII. Dagger with sheath, early 17th century. Steel, gold, enamel, precious stones, emerald, length 42.8 cm.
Plate VIII. Reservoir for a water pipe (qaliān), 19th century. Gold, enamel, height 20.2 cm.
Pottery from the 19th century, or “the Qājār era,” is also well represented. This group numbers more than 100 items, but research on it is yet to begin.
Manuscripts and miniatures. The manuscript collection comprises thirty-two volumes, dating from the 15th to the 19th century. Thirteen of them are illustrated, but there are no rare literary works among them. The most famous one among them is the manuscript of Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa which was copied for Šāhroḵ by the calligrapher Maḥmud in Herat in 835/1431.
The collection of individual miniatures and drawings totals 144 items and spans the period from the 15th to the beginning of the 19th century. Most remarkable among them are the following works of Reżā ʿAbbāsi: “Youth with a Jug,” “Girl in a Fur Hat,” and “Feast in the Open Air.” Finally, it is worth mentioning the 15 oil paintings, from the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, which include two large canvases of rare battle scenes: “The Battle Between the Persians and the Russians” and “Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah Inspects the Persian Armies.”
Plate IX. Book rest, 17th century. Wood, paint finish, height 58 cm, width 20 cm.
Lacquer-work. This collection of 295 items is considered to be one of the largest museum displays of such artifacts. It consists mostly of pen-cases (qalamdān), mirror-cases, and boxes of different shapes and sizes, and it also includes 184 playing cards. The earliest specimens date from the 17th century, but most were produced in the 19th century. Among the rare exhibits are the manuscript stand (raḥla) from the mid-17th-century, the pen-case made by Moḥammad-Ebrāhim b. Ḥāji Yusof Qomi in 1092/1681, and the box of Moḥammad-ʿAli b. Moḥammad-Zamān, which was made in 1112/1700-01.
Textiles. This art form is represented very unevenly by the collection’s approximately 150 textile items, most of which date from the 16th to the 19th century. For instance, to represent the 11th and12th centuries there is only one fragment of a silk fabric. The collection also comprises some nineteenth-century embroideries. A few of the textiles and embroideries bear the name of the weavers. It is difficult to say how many of them are Persian, since they have never been catalogued. Among the rarer items is a cloth fragment from the 16th century depicting the lover Majnun among wild beasts, a silk textile with garden scenes from the same period, and a fragment of a fabric from the time of Nāder Shah (1730s-40s).
Carpets. This Persian art form is also unevenly represented by this collection. The earliest specimen is a fragment of a flatweave rug (zilu) from the 16th century. There are also twenty carpets and fragments of carpets dating from the 16th to the beginning of the 18th century, which include among them half of a carpet from the 16th century with animal motifs, a 17th-century silk carpet woven with silver thread, which has an asymmetrical design in the center, and a fragment of a 17th-century carpet from the Kermān group. There are more than 100 carpets from the 19th century, but none of them is particularly outstanding.
Seals and amulets. These artifacts have attracted the attention of researchers only in the last twenty years. Most are made of semi-precious stones, although there are some silver and bronze/brass ones. The specialist catalogue of the collection lists 158 Persian seals dating from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, as well as 300 older ones, from as far back as the 14th century. The older seals usually bear Kufic inscriptions, and their origins are more difficult to idenfify. It can be no more than assumed that most of them are of Persian origin. Among the rare specimens are the seal of Timur’s son Mirān-Šāh, dated 802/1399-1400, and the seal of Gowhar-Šād, the wife of Šāhroḵ. The collection comprises 161 amulets, most of which are presumably of Persian origin.
Arms and armor. Arms and armor at the State Hermitage are assigned to the Arsenal. The Oriental Department displays only weapons inlaid with precious stones, the majority of which (sixteen) were transferred to the Hermitage from the Tsarskoe Selo arsenal in 1886. A few additional items came from the collection of Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich.
Plate X. Small table, 19th century. Wood, paint finish, on three legs with a round top, diameter of top 52.5 cm, height 77 cm.
It is difficult to estimate the number of weapons at the Arsenal which are Persian in origin, because they are very similar to items of Turkish and Indian origin. Most date back to the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century. The oldest items in the collection are seven daggers dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, and several sword blades which might be from the same period. Some recent studies have classified the collection of so-called “Turkish helmets” from the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century as being of Persian origin, but this attribution requires further investigation.
Coins. All coins at the Hermitage are assigned to the Numismatics Department, which was enriched in the 1920s with contributions from the Asiatic Museum of the Academy of Sciences and from a few major private collections, such as the collection of Vladimir Vladimirovich Vel’yaminov-Zernov. Presently, the numismatic section boasts exhibits from almost all of the major Persian dynasties from the advent of Islam until the 20th century. They include many rare coins and some excellent specimens of gold and silver, as well as copper coins minted in different Persian towns. The collection contains about 5,000 items in total.
General Works: Vladimir Lukonin and Anatol Ivanov, Persian Art, Bournemouth and St. Petersburg, 1996. Masterpieces of Islamic Art in the Hermitage Museum, Kuwait, 1990 (exhibition catalogue in Arabic, English and Russian). Mikhail B. Piotrovsky and John Vrieze, Art of Islam, Heavenly Art and Earthly Beauty, Amsterdam, 1999.
1. Metalwork: a. Bronze/brass. M. M. D’yakonov, “Bronzovyĭ vodoleĭ 1206 g. n. e.” (A bronze ewer, 1206 C.E.) in Tretiĭ mezhdunarodnyĭ kongress po iranskomu iskusstvu i arkheologii: Doklady, Moscow and Leningrad, 1939, pp. 45-51.
Idem, “Bronzovaya plastika pervykh vekov hijry” (Bronze figurines from the early centuries A.H.), Trudy otdela istorii i iskusstva Vostoka Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 4, 1947, pp. 155-78.
Idem, “Arabskaya nadpis’ na bronzovom orle iz sobraniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha” (An Arabic inscription on a bronze eagle from the State Hermitage collection), Èpigrafika Vostoka 4, 1951, pp. 24-27.
L. Gyuzalyan, “Bronzovaya kuril’nitsa v forme orla” (A bronze incense burner the shape of an eagle), in Sokrovishcha Èrmitazha, Moscow and Leningrad, 1949, pp. 129-30.
Idem, “Tri indzhuidskikh bronzovykh sosuda: K voprosu o lokalizatsii yugo-zapadnoĭ gruppy srednevekovoĭ khudozhestvennoĭ bronzy Irana” (Three Inju’id bronze vessels: On localizing the southwestern group of medieval Persian bronzes), in Trudy Dvadtsat’ pyatogo mezhdunarodnogo kongressa vostokovedov II, Moscow, 1963, pp. 174-78.
Idem, “The Bronze Qalamdan (Pen-case) 542/1148 from the Hermitage Collection (1936-1965),” Ars Orientalis 7, 1968, pp. 95-119.
Idem, “Vtoroĭ geratskiĭ kotelok, kotelok Ful’da” (A second bucket from Herat, the Fold bucket), Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 19, 1978, pp. 53-83.
Idem, “Bronzovaya kuril’nitsa 180 goda hijry iz sobraniya Èrmitazha” (A bronze incense burner, 180 A.H., from the Hermitage collection), in Mirovaya kul’tura: Traditsii i sovremennost’, Moscow, 1991, pp. 198-206.
Anatol Ivanov, “Mednaya chasha 811 g. h./1408-9 g. so stikhami Khafiza” (A copper cup with verses by Ḥāfeẓ, 811/1408-09), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 19, 1960, pp. 41-44.
Idem, “O pervonacha-l’nom naznachenii tak nazyvaemykh iranskikh ‘podsvechnikov’ XVI-XVII vv.” (On the original purpose of the so called Persian ‘candlesticks’ from the 16th-17th centuries), in Issledovaniya po istorii kul’tury narodov Vostoka, Moscow and Leningrad, 1960, pp. 337-45.
Idem, “O printsipakh datirovki mednykh i bronzovykh izdeliĭ Irana XV-XVIII vekov” (On the principles of dating Persian copper and bronze artifacts from the 15th-18th centuries), Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha: Kul’tura i iskusstvo narodov Vostoka 5, 1961, pp. 243-50.
Idem, “Khorasanskie bronzovye i mednye izdeliya vtoroĭ poloviny XV-nachala XVI vv.” (Bronze and copper artifacts from Khorasan from the second half of the 15th to the beginning of the 16th century), in Tezisy dokladov na yubileĭnoĭ nauchnoĭ sesii: Sektsionnye zasedaniya, Leningrad, 1964, pp. 56-57.
Idem, “Dannye eµpigrafiki i voprosy datirovki iranskikh mednikh i bronzovykh izdeliĭ XIX veka” (Epigraphic data and problems of dating Persian copper and bronze artifacts from the 19th century), Èpigrafika Vostoka 17, 1966, pp. 65-71.
Idem, “Osnovanie podsvechnika 880 g. h./1475-76 gg. so stikhami poeµta Salikhi” (A candlestick base from 880/1475-76 inscribed with verses by the poet Ṣāleḥi), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 27, 1966, pp. 67-70.
Idem, “Iranskiĭ mednyĭ podnos XIV v.” (A Persian copper tray from the 14th century), Èpigrafika Vostoka 18, 1967, pp. 94-104.
Idem, “Khudozhestvennaya bronza Blizhnego i Srednego Vostoka, VII—XX vv.” (Artistic bronzes from the Near and Middle East, 7th-20th centuries), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 30, 1969, pp. 31-36.
Idem, “Tri predmeta so stikhami Dzhami” (Three objects inscribed with verses by Jāmi), Èpigrafika Vostoka 20, 1971, pp. 97-103.
Idem, “Bronzes from Islamic Iran,” in Great Art Treasures of the Hermitage Museum I, St. Petersburg, New York, London, 1994, pp. 416-42.
Vladimir Lukonin and Anatol Ivanov, Lost Treasures of Persia: Persian Art in the Hermitage Museum, Washington, D.C., 1996.
B. I. Marshak, “Ranneislamskie bronzovyie blyuda: siro-egipteskaya i iranskaya traditsii v iskusstve khalifata” (Early Islamic bronze dishes: Syrio-Egyptian and Persian traditions in the art of the caliphate), Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 19, 1978, pp. 26-52.
N. I. Vesselovskiĭ, Geratskiĭ bronzovyĭ kotelok 559 goda hijry/1163 po r. kh. iz sobraniya grafa Bobrinskogo (A bronze bucket from Herat, 559/1163, in the collection of Count Bobrinskoĭ), St. Petersburg, 1910.
1. b. Gold and silver. Anatol Ivanov, “Iranskiĭ serebryanyĭ talisman XVI veka” (A Persian silver talisman from the 16th century), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 47, 1982, pp. 73-74.
Anatol Ivanov, V. G. Lukonin, and L. S. Smesova, Yuvelirnye izdeliya Vostoka (Oriental jewelry), Moscow, 1984.
B. I. Marshak, “Serebryanye sosudy X–XI vv., ikh znachenie dlya periodizatsii iskusstva Irana i Sredneĭ Azii” (Silver vessels from the 10th-11th centuries and their significance for the periodization of Persian and Central Asian art), in Iskusstvo i arkheologiya Irana: Vtoraya vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya, Moscow, 1976, pp. 148-73.
Idem, Silberschätze des Orients: Metallkunst des 3.-13. Jahrhunderts und ihre Kontinuität, Leipzig, 1984.
2. Other works: a. Ceramics. L. Golombek, R. V. Mason, G. A. Bailey, Tamerlane’s Tableware: A New Approach to the Chinoiserie Ceramics of Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Iran, Costa Mesa and Toronto, 1996.
L. T. Gyuzalyan, “Neskol’ko poeµticheskikh tekstov na varaminskikh izraztsakh Èrmitazha” (Some verse inscriptions on tiles from Varāmin), Èpigrafika Vostoka 14, 1961, pp. 36-43.
Anatol Ivanov, “Fayansovoye blyudo XV veka iz Mashkhada” (A 15th-century faïence dish from Mašhad), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 45, 1980, pp. 64-6.
V. A. Krachkov-skaya, “Izraztsovyĭ mikhrab Èrmitazha” (A tile mihrab from the Hermitage), Iran I, Leningrad, 1926, pp. 73-86.
Idem, “Fragments du mihrab de Varamin,” Ars Islamica 2/1, 1935, pp. 132-34.
Idem, Izraztsy mavzoleĭa Pir-Khuseĭna (Tiles from the Pir-Ḥosayn mausoleum), Tbilisi, 1946.
E. K. Kverfel’d, Keramika Blizhnego Vostoka (Middle Eastern ceramics), Leningrad, 1947.
Ingeborg Luschey-Schmeisser, “Ein safavidischer Kachelbogen mit Fest-Darstellung in der Ermitage,” in Beiträge zur Altertumskunde Kleinasiens: Festschrift für Kurt Bittel, Mainz, 1983, pp. 331-36.
Idem, “Ein safavidischer Drachen-Bogen in der Ermitage,” Archaeologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 17, 1984, pp. 315-22.
I. V. Rapoport, “Iranskiĭ polikhromnyĭ izrazets s pogrudnym izobrazheniem muzhchiny” (A Persian polychrome tile with the portrait of a man), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 26, 1965, pp. 31-33.
Idem, “Ob odnoĭ maloizvestnoĭ gruppe iranskoĭ keramiki XVIII v.” (On a little-known group of Persian ceramics from the 18th century), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 29, 1968, pp. 42-44.
Idem, “Kermanskaya keramika s rospisyu kobal’tom XVI-XVII vv. v sobranii Èrmitazha” (Blue and white ceramics of the 16th and 17th centuries from Kermān in the Hermitage collection), Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 10, 1969, pp. 168-85.
Idem, “K voprosu o pozdneĭ lyustrovoĭ keramike Irana” (On the issue of late lusterware from Persia), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 31, 1970, pp. 54-56.
Idem, “K voprosu o kitaĭskikh vliyaniyakh v keramike Irana: ‘Iranskie seladony’” (On the issue of Chinese influences on Persian ceramics: ‘Persian celadon ware’), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 34, 1972, pp. 23-25.
Idem, “Monokhromnaya keramika Irana XVI-XVII vv. s rel’efnymi izobrazheniyami: O svyazi keramiki s miniatyurnoĭ zhivopisyu” (Persian monochrome ceramics from the 16th and 17th centuries with embossments: On the connection between ceramics and miniature painting), in Srednyaya Aziya i Iran, Leningrad, 1972, pp. 149-56.
Idem, “Ob odnoĭ gruppe iranskikh fayansovykh butyleĭ” (On a group of Persian faïence bottles), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 40, 1975, pp. 50-53.
2. b. Miniatures and manuscripts. Adel’ Tigranovna Adamova, “Dva portreta Fatkh-Ali shakha iz sobraniya Èrmitazha i kadzharskiĭ ofitsial’nyĭ stil’” (Two portraits of Faṭḥ-ʿAli Shah in the collections of the Hermitage, and the official Qājār style), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 33, 1971, pp. 85-88.
Idem, Dve kartiny rannekadzharskogo perioda” (Two paintings of the early Qājār period), in Srednyaya Aziya i Iran, Leningrad, 1971, pp. 170-77.
Idem, “O persidskom khudozhnike XVIII veka Mukhammade Baqire” (On the 18th-century Persian painter Moḥammad-Bāqer), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 51, 1986, pp. 55-59.
Idem, “Al’bom persidskikh miniatyur i risunkov “muraqqa” iz sobraniya Èrmitazha” (An album of Persian miniature drawings (moraqqaʿ) in the Hermitage collection), in Vizantiya i Blizhniĭ Vostok (Pamyati A. V. Bank), St. Petersburg, 1994, pp. 142-57.
Idem, Persidskaya zhivopis’ i risunok XV-XIX vekov v sobranii Èrmitazha (Persian paintings and drawings from the 15th to the 19th century in the Hermitage collection), St. Petersburg, 1996.
Oleg F. Akimushkin and Anatol Ivanov, Persidskie miniatyury XIV-XVII vv. (Persian miniatures from the 14th to the 17th century C.E.), Moscow, 1968.
2. c. Lacquer-work. Adel’ Tigranovna Adamova, “O syuzhete odnoĭ persidskoĭ miniatyury na lartse” (On the subject of a Persian miniature painted on a jewelry box), Soobshcheniya GosudarstvennogoÈrmitazha 34, 1972, pp. 29-32.
Idem, Persidskaya zhivopis’ i risunok XV-XIX vekov v sobranii Èrmitazha (Persian paintings and drawings from the 15th-19th centuries in the Hermitage collection), St. Petersburg, 1996.
Anatol Ivanov, “Korobochka s imenem Mukhammada Ali, syna Mukhammada Zamana” (A box bearing the name of Moḥammad-ʿAli, son of Moḥammad-Zamān), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 18, 1960, pp. 52-53.
Idem, “Persidskiĭ qalamdan 1092/1681 g.” (A Persian qalamdān from 1092/1681), Palestinskiĭ sbornik 21/84, 1970, pp. 229-32.
Idem, “Qalamdan s portretom yunoshi v latakh” (A qalamdān with the portrait of a youth in armor), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 39, 1974, pp. 56-59.
2. d. Textiles (see also under carpets). N. A. Pirverdyan, “O vremeni izgotovleniya odnoĭ persidskoĭ tkani” (On the date of production of a Persian textile), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 30, 1969, pp. 39-42.
Idem, “Iranskie tkani sefevidskogo vremeni s syuzhetnymi izobrazheniyami: voprosy atributsii” (Persian textiles from the Safavid era with thematic figurative designs: problems of attribution), in Iskusstvo i arkheologiya Irana: Vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya: Dok-lady, Moscow, 1971, pp. 241-52.
Idem, Srednevekovye persidskie khudozhestvennye tkani: na vystavke Blizhnego Vostoka (Medieval Persian artistic textiles: at the Middle East exhibition), Leningrad, 1971.
Idem, “K voprosu o persidskikh syuzhetnykh tkanyakh XVI-XVII vv.” (On Persian textiles with thematic designs from the 16th and 17th centuries C.E.), in Srednyaya Aziya i Iran, Leningrad, 1972, pp. 157-62.
Idem, “K datirovke iranskikh parchovykh tkanei s syuzhetami” (On dating Persian cloth textiles with thematic designs), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 40, 1975, pp. 53-56.
Idem, “Iranskiye barkhaty s syuzhetnymi izobrazheniyami: voprosy khronologii i evropeiskogo vliyaniya” (Persian velvets with thematic designs: problems of chronology and European influences), in Iskusstvo i arkheologiya Irana: Vsesoyuznaya konferentsiya: Doklady, Moscow, 1976, pp. 182-88.
2. e. Carpets. E. K. Kverfel’d, “Cherty realizma v risunkakh na tkanyakh i kovrakh sefevidskogo vremeni” (Realistic features of the figurative designs on textiles and carpets from the Safavid era), Trudy otdela istorii kul’tury i iskusstva Vostoka 3, 1940, pp. 263-72.
Treasures from the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, The European Fine Art Fair, Maastricht, 1994.
2. f. Seals and amulets. Anatol Ivanov, “Pechat’ Gaukhar-shad” (The seal of Gowhar-Šād), Strany i narody Vostoka 10, 1971, pp. 199-201.
Idem, “Ob iranskikh pechatyakh XIV v.” (On Persian seals from the 14th century C.E.), in Sem’desyat-pyat’ let Otdelu Vostoka: Materialy yubileĭnoĭ nauchnoĭ sesii, St. Petersburg, 1995, pp. 44-45.
Idem, “Ob iranskikh i sredneazi-atskikh pechatyakh XIV-pervoĭ poloviny XVI veka” (On Persian and Central Asian seals from the 14th and the first half of the 16th century), in Èrmitazhnyie chteniya pamyati B. B. Pyotrovskogo (14. II. 1908—15.X. 1990): Tezisy dokladov, St. Petersburg, 1997, pp. 35-37.
M. B. Severova, “Lichnaya pechat’ M. D. Skobeleva 1880 goda” (The personal seal of M. D. Skobelev from 1880), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Èrmitazha 35, 1972, pp. 96-98.
N. I. Veselovskiĭ, “Persten’-pechat’ Miran-shakha mirzy, syna Tamerlana” (The seal-ring of Mirān-Šāh Mirzā, son of Tamerlane), in Kaufmanskiĭ sbornik, Moscow, 1910, pp. 229-34.
2. g. Arms and Armor. Anatol Ivanov, “A Group of Iranian Daggers of the Period from the Fifteenth to the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century with Persian Inscriptions,” in Islamic Arms and Armour, London, 1979, pp. 64-77.
E. Lenz, Opis’ sobraniya oruzhiya grafa S. D. Sheremet’eva (Inventory of Count S. D. Sheremetyev’s arms collection), St. Petersburg, 1895. Idem, Al’bom izobrazhenii vydayushchikhsya predmetov iz sobraniya oruzhiya (A picture album of notable artifacts from the arms collection), St. Petersburg, 1908.
Idem, “Sobranie oruzhiya” (The arms collection), in Ukazatel’ otdeleniya srednikh vekov i eµpokhi Vozrozhdeniya (Index of the Department of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance), St. Petersburg, 1908, chap. 8. Y. M(iller), “Oriental Arms and Armour,” in Great Art Treasures of the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, New York and London, 1994, pp. 668-83.
2. h. Coins. Aleksei Markov, Inventarnyĭ katalog musulmanskikh monet Èrmitazha (Inventory catalogue of the Muslim coins at the Hermitage), St. Petersburg, 1896.
V. G. Tizenhausen, Monety Vostochnogo khalifata (Coins of the Eastern Caliphate), St. Petersburg, 1873.
Originally Published: December 15, 2003
Last Updated: March 22, 2012
This article is available in print.
Vol. XII, Fasc. 3, pp. 245-254