Table of Contents


    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Khorasan, Gorgān, and Māzandarān.


    Farhad Daftary

    a fortress on the summit of an isolated rocky hill in the Alborz mountains, situated some 18 km west of Dāmḡān in northern Persia.



    See WALNUT.


    Marcus Milwright

    (lit. "making knot”), a form of geometric interlaced strapwork ornament that is commonly found in architecture and the minor arts throughout the Islamic world. In Persian Islamic architecture gereh-sāzī designs exist in a variety of media, particularly cut brickwork (bannāʾī), stucco, and cut tilework (mosaic faïence).

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    Daniel Balland

    a small oasis-city on the right bank of the Helmand river in Southern Afghanistan, the headquarters of the district (woloswālī) of Nahr-e Serāj within the province of Helmand.


    Erich Kettenhofen

    city in the ancient country of Commagene in the Roman province of Syria, present-day Maraş in southeast Turkey.


    Pierre Briant

    (also Karmanians, Carmanians), name of an ancient Persian tribe engaged in farming.


    Multiple Authors

    i. German-Persian diplomatic relations, ii. Archeological excavations and studies, iii. Iranian studies in German: Pre-Islamic period, iv. Iranian studies in German: Islamic period, v. German travelers and explorers in Persia, vi. Collections and study of Persian art in Germany, vii. Persia in German literature, viii. German cultural influence in Persia, ix. Germans in Persia, x. The Persian community in Germany.

  • GERMANY i. German-Persian diplomatic relations

    Oliver Bast

    Around 1555 a man coming from Italy, who called himself the son of the “king of Persia,” turned up at the University of Wittenberg.

  • GERMANY ii. Archeological excavations and studies

    Dietrich Huff

    The first Germans who reported on the historical and archeological monuments of the ancient Persian world, were, as in other nations, adventurers and travelers of a different kind. 

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