Table of Contents

  • BĀYBŪRTLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (also Bāybūrdlū), a Turkic tribe of northwestern Iran whose only vestiges seem to be the names of a few historical personalities.

  • BĀYDŪ

    B. Spuler

    a son of Ṭaraḡāy and grandson of Hülegü (Hūlāgū), reigned as il-khan in Iran, 1295.

  • BAYHAQ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a rural area (rostāq) of medieval Khorasan, between the district of Nīšāpūr and the eastern borders of Qūmes, and its town, also known as Sabzavār.

  • BAYHAQĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL

    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN, secretary at the Ghaznavid court and renowned Persian historian (995-1077).

  • BAYHAQĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN MOḤAMMAD

    H. Halm

    B. ŠOʿAYB ʿEJLĪ NAYSĀBŪRĪ (d. 936), a jurist who helped promote the spread of the Shafeʿite school of Islamic law in Khorasan.

  • BAYHAQĪ, EBRĀHĪM

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. MOḤAMMAD, 10th-century Arabic littérateur, author of a work of adab.

  • BAYHAQĪ, ẒAHĪR-AL-DĪN

    H. Halm

    ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ B. ZAYD (ca. 1097-1169), also known as Ebn Fondoq, an Iranian polymath of Arab descent, author of the Tārīḵ-e Bayhaq.

  • BĀYJŪ

    P. Jackson

    Mongol general and military governor in northwestern Iran (fl. 1228-1259). He belonged to the Besüt tribe and was a kinsman of Jengiz Khan’s general Jebe (Jaba).

  • BAYLAQĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of the medieval Islamic region of Arrān, the classical Caucasian Albania, lying in the triangle between the Kor and Aras (Araxes) rivers.

  • BĀYQARĀ B. ʿOMAR ŠAYḴ

    E. Glassen

    (b. 1392-93, d. 1422-23?), a Timurid prince and grandson of Tīmūr, active in Fārs.

  • BAYRAM KHAN

    N. H. Ansari

    (or BAYRĀM) KHAN, Moḥammad Ḵān(-e) Ḵānān (d. 1561), an illustrious and powerful Iranian noble at the court of the Mughal emperors Homāyūn and Akbar.

  • BAYRĀMŠĀH

    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    (d. 1367-69), the beloved companion (nadīm) of Sultan Oways, second ruler (r. 1356 to 1374-75) of the Jalayerids.

  • BAYRĀNAVAND

    P. Oberling

    a Lor tribe of the Pīš(-e)Kūh region in Lorestān.

  • BĀYSONḠOR, ḠĪĀṮ-AL-DĪN

    H. R. Roemer

    B. ŠĀHROḴ B. TĪMŪR (1397-1433), Timurid prince who played an important role as a statesman and a patron of art and architecture and was himself a first-class calligrapher.

  • BĀYSONḠORĪ ŠĀH-NĀMA

    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh, T. Lentz

    an illuminated and gilded manuscript of Ferdowsī’s Šāh-nāma measur­ing 26.5 × 38 cm, containing 346 pages and twenty-one paintings, written in nastaʿlīq, and kept in the former Royal Library (Golestan Palace Museum, no. 6) in Tehran. i. The manuscript.  ii. The paintings.

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  • BAYT

    A. Hassanpour

    a genre of Kurdish folk art, an orally transmitted story which is either entirely sung or is a combination of sung verse and spoken prose.

  • BAYT-AL-ʿADL

    M. Momen

    (House of Justice), a Bahai administrative institution.

  • BAYTUZ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a Turkish commander who controlled the town of Bost in southern Afghanistan during the middle years of the 10th century.

  • BAYŻĀ

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of medieval Islamic Fārs (modern Tall-e Bayżā), 25 miles north of Shiraz, 8 farsaḵs according to the medieval geographers and one stage east of the Sasanian and early Islamic town of Eṣṭaḵr.

  • BAYŻĀWĪ, NĀṢER-AL-DĪN

    E. Kohlberg

    Shafeʿite jurist, Asḥʿarite theologian, and renowned Koran commentator (13th-14th centuries).

  • BĀZ

    H. Aʿlam

    general term formerly applied particularly to birds from the genera Falco (falcons) and Accipiter (hawks), which were traditionally prized and trained for hunting game birds.

  • BĀZ-NĀMA

    Moḥammad-Taqī Dānešpažūh

    books or treatises on the keeping and training of falcons.

  • BĀZA-ḴŪR

    D. Huff

    (Baz-e Hur), a village and site of some important Sasanian structures on the road from Mašhad to Torbat-e Ḥaydarīya.

  • BAZAG

    Cross-Reference

    “toilette.” See COSMETICS.

  • BĀZĀR

    Multiple Authors

    “market (place),” term which may refer to: a market day, usually once a week, when farmers bring their wares to the market to sell; a fair held at specific times; and the physical establishments, the shops, characterized by specific morphology and architectural design.

  • BAZAR i. General

    Michael E. Bonine

    Large interior courtyard caravanserais are an integral part of most bāzārs, particularly in the larger cities where international long-distance trade was once significant. Around the courtyard are single- or two-storied complexes of offices occupied by wholesalers, although the bottom level is more often for storage and in some instances even contains shopkeepers or craftsmen.

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  • BĀZĀR ii. Organization and Function

    Willem Floor

    Both weekly market days and regular fairs occurred in pre-Islamic times. Among the latter, for example, was the bāzār of Māḵ in Bukhara.

  • BAZAR iii. Socioeconomic and Political Role

    Ahmad Ashraf

    The bāzār in the Islamic city has been (1) a central marketplace and craft center located in the old quarters of the town; (2) a primary arena, along with the mosque, of extrafamilial sociability; and (3) a sociocultural milieu of a traditional urban life-style.

  • BAZAR iv. In Afghanistan

    E. F. Grötzbach

    In Afghanistan a bāzār is a collection of shops and workshops forming a topographic unit. As regards size and layout, however, there can be great differences.

  • BAZAR v. Temporary Bazars in Iran and Afghanistan

    M. Bazin

    The most firmly established form of periodic bāzār is certainly the one observed in the Caspian lowlands of Iran and especially in the central plain of Gīlān, where weekly bāzārs (bāzār-e haftagī) are part of a particularly long tradition.

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  • BĀZĀR-E WAKĪL

    Karāmat-Allāh Afsar

    an architectural monument of Shiraz from the reign of Karīm Khan Zand (Wakīl, r. 1750-79) and still an important center of business.

  • BĀZARGĀN

    Bernard Hourcade

    a village on the Turkish-Iranian frontier eighteen kilometers northwest of Mākū,  West Azerbaijan province. The development of this village is very recent and limited, linked with the nearby frontier crossing.

  • BĀZĀRGĀNĪ

    cross-reference

    See COMMERCE.

  • BĀZDĀRĪ

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (or bāzyārī, lit. “bāz keeping,” obs.), falconry, as a practical art and as a sport.

  • BĀZGAŠT-E ADABĪ

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    “literary return,” a move­ment for a return to writing poetry in the Ḵorāsānī and ʿErāqī styles, which began in the mid-18th century and continued into the 20th century.

  • BĀZĪ

    Fereydūn Vahman

    (games). The growing interest in Iranian folklore in recent decades has resulted in the publication of descriptions of many games played in various parts of Iran, often to be found in dialect glossaries.

  • BĀZRANGĪ

    Richard N. Frye

    the family name of a dynasty of petty rulers in Fārs overthrown during the rise of the Sasanians.

  • BĀZYĀR

    cross-reference

    See BĀZ.

  • BĀZYĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZDĀRĪ.

  • BDEAXŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See BIDAXŠ.

  • BE SŪ-YE ĀYANDA

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Toward the future), Per­sian daily newspaper and unofficial organ of the Communist Ḥezb-e Tūda (Tudeh party, 1950-53.

  • BEADS

    cross-reference

    See JEWELRY.

  • BEANS

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    term applied to plants (and their seeds) of different genera of the vast family Leguminosae. In this article, discussion is confined to what is commonly called lūbīā in Persian.

  • BEAR

    Paul Joslin

    (Pers. ḵers, Av. arša-). Two varieties of bears are found on the Iranian plateau: the Eurasian brown bear and the Baluchistan black bear. The Eurasian brown bear is the most common of all bears. 

  • BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC DE

    Werner Sundermann

    (1659-1738), Huguenot pastor, scholar and pioneer of modern studies of Manicheism.

  • BEAVER

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Castor fiber L., semiaquatic mammalian rodent, in Persian commonly sag-e ābī (lit. “aquatic dog”), no longer extant in Iran. There appear to be references to beavers in Avestan and Pahlavi literatures.

  • Bečka, Jiři

    Manfred Lorenz

    (1915-2004), a noted Czech scholar of Iran, Afghanistan, and particularly, Tajikistan.

  • BĒDIL

    cross-reference

    See BĪDEL.

  • BEDIR KHAN

    Mehmed Uzun

    (Badr Khan; d. 1867), last ruler of the principality of Cizre-Botan, by extension, name of a Kurdish clan that has played important political, social, and cultural roles since the mid-19th century.

  • BEDLĪS

    Robert Dankoff

    (Turk. Bitlis, Arm. Bałēš, Ar. Badlīs), town and province of Turkey, of Kurdish population, situated twenty km southwest of Lake Van, commanding the passes between the Armenian highlands and the Mesopotamian lowlands.