Table of Contents

  • BEDIR KHAN

    Mehmed Uzun

    (Badr Khan; d. 1867), last ruler of the principality of Cizre-Botan, by extension, name of a Kurdish clan that has played important political, social, and cultural roles since the mid-19th century.

  • BEDLĪS

    Robert Dankoff

    (Turk. Bitlis, Arm. Bałēš, Ar. Badlīs), town and province of Turkey, of Kurdish population, situated twenty km southwest of Lake Van, commanding the passes between the Armenian highlands and the Mesopotamian lowlands.

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ḤAKĪM-AL-DĪN EDRĪS

    Cornell H. Fleischer

    B. ḤOSĀM-AL-DĪN ʿALĪ, MAWLĀNĀ (d. 1520), scholar, his­torian, poet, and statesman under the Ottoman Sultan Salīm I (r. 1512-20).

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ŠARAF-AL-DĪN KHAN

    Erika Glassen

    (b. 1543, d. 1603-04?), chief of the Rūzagī tribe of Kurds, whose traditional center was the town of Bedlīs; author of the Šaraf-nāma, a history of the Kurds in Persian.

  • BEDLĪSĪ, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿAMMĀR

    Edward Badeen

    Sufi shaikh (d. between 1194 and 1207-08), teacher of Najm-al-Din Kobrā.

  • BEDŽỊZATỊ ČERMEN

    Fridrik Thordarson

    (Russ.: Chermen Begizov; DAUỊTỊ FỊRT;  1899-1941), Ossetic writer and editor.

  • BEECH

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Fagus L. Modern Iranian botanists tend to refer to this tree as rāš. Its timber is used more than any other wood for making doors, windows, inexpensive furni­ture, and tools.

  • BEET

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    Beta vulgaris L., PERS. čoḡondar. The present distinction of beet varieties into vegetable (or red) beet, sugar beet, and fodder beet was unknown to the early Islamic botanists-pharmacologists.

  • BEG

    Peter Jackson

    (Pers. also beyg) a Turkish title meaning “lord” or “chief,” later “prince,” equivalent to the Arabic-Persian amīr, fem. BEGOM.

  • BEGGING

    C. Edmund Bosworth, Hamid Algar, ʿAlī-Akbar Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    (Pers. gadāʾī, takaddī, soʾāl).  i. In the early centuries of the Islamic period. ii. In Sufi literature and practice. iii. In later Iran.

  • BEGLERBEGĪ

    Peter Jackson

    a Turkish title meaning “beg of begs,” “commander of commanders,” In the Il-khanid period sometimes employed to designate the leading amir in the state.

  • BEGRĀM

    Martha L. Carter

    the site of ancient Kāpiśa, located 80.5 km north of Kabul overlooking the Panjšīr valley at the confluence of the Panjšīr and Ḡorband rivers.

  • BEGTOḠDÏ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Turkish slave com­mander of the Ghaznavid sultans Maḥmūd and Masʿūd (d. 1040).

  • BEGTUZUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (Pers. Baktūzūn), a Turkish slave general of the Samanids prominent in the confused struggles for power during the closing years of the Samanid amirate (end of the 10th century).

  • BEH

    Wilhelm Eilers, Hūšang Aʿlam, Nesta Ramazani

    “quince, Cydonia.”  i. The word.  ii. The tree.  iii. Culinary uses of the fruit. Wild quince trees are found in the Caucasus, and the cultivated variety may have originated there.

  • BEH-ARDAŠĪR

    Michael Morony

    (Mid. Pers. Vēh-Ardaxšēr, Ar. Bahorasīr), name of two cities founded by the first Sasanian king of kings, Ardašīr I (r. 226-41).

  • BEH-QOBĀD

    Michael Morony

    (Mid. Pers. Vēh-Kavāt), an administrative district created by the Sasanian king Qobād I in the early sixth century along the Babylon branch of the Euphrates.

  • BEHĀFARĪD

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    Zoroastrian heresiarch and self-styled prophet, killed 748-49.

  • BEḤĀR AL-ANWĀR

    Etan Kohlberg

    (Oceans of light) by Mollā Moḥammad-Bāqer b. Moḥammad-Taqī Majlesī (d. 1699 or 1700), an encyclopedic compilation in Arabic of Imamite traditions.

  • BEHAZIN

    ḤASSAN MIRʿĀBEDINI

    noted translator, editor, fiction writer, and active Marxist, who, in different stages of his literary career, assumed other pseudonyms: Nowruz ʿAli Āzād, and Hormoz Malekdād. In January 1938, he returned to Iran to serve in the navy and was posted in Ḵorramπahr, where he found ample leisure time to pursue his literary interests.

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  • BEHBAHĀN

    Aḥmad Eqtedārī

    Iranian city and county (šahrestān) in the province of Ḵūzestān.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    cross-reference

    See ʿABD-ALLĀH BEHBAHĀNĪ.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    Hamid Algar

    , AYATOLLAH (1874-1963), a leading mojtahed of Tehran who played a role of some importance in the events of the first two postwar decades.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ

    Hamid Algar

    B. MOḤAMMAD-BĀQER, ĀQĀ  (1731-1801), Shiʿite mojtahed celebrated primarily for his ferocious hatred of Sufis.

  • BEHBAHĀNĪ, MOḤMMAD-BĀQER

    Hamid Algar

    , ĀQĀ SAYYED, Shiʿite mojtahed and champion of the Oṣūlī school in Shiʿite law (feqh).

  • BEHBŪDĪ

    Yuri Bregel

    , MOLLĀ MAḤMŪD ḴᵛĀJA (1875-1919), one of the leaders of the Jadīd movement in Central Asia in the 1900s-1910s, journalist and playwright.

  • BEHDĀRĪ

    Mohammad Ali Faghih

    Despite the advent of western physicians and the introduction of western medicine into Iran in the late seventeenth century and the foundation of the Polytechnic in the mid-nineteenth, at the outset of Reżā Shah’s reign, medicine in Iran was still predominantly Galenic in nature, based mostly on the traditional schools of Persian medicine.

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  • BEHDĀŠT BARĀ-YE HAMA

    Akbar Moarefi

    (“Health for All”), a magazine published by the Division of Public Health Education in Tehran, 1953-56.

  • BEHDĪN

    James R. Russell

    “the Good Religion,” i.e., Zoroastrianism, or one of its adherents, in modern usage, specifically of the laity.

  • BEHDĪNĀN DIALECT

    Gernot L. Windfuhr

    a Central dialect spoken by the Behdīnān “the people of the Good Religion,” i.e., Zoroastrianism, who live in, or came from, the cities of Kermān and Yazd and surrounding towns and villages.  

  • BEHEŠT-E ZAHRĀʾ

    Hamid Algar

    the chief cemetery of Teh­ran and principal shrine of the Islamic Revolution of 1357 Š./1978-79.

  • BEHĪZAK

    cross-reference

    See CALENDARS.

  • BEHRAMSHAH NAOROJI SHROFF

    John R. Hinnells

    (1858-­1927), Parsi religions teacher and founder of the move­ment known as Ilm-i Khshnoom (ʿElm-e ḵošnūm; Path of knowledge).

  • BEHRANGĪ, ṢAMAD

    Michael C. Hillmann

    (1939-1968), teacher, social critic, folklorist, translator, and short story writer.

  • BEHRŪZ DONBOLĪ

    cross-reference

    , AMĪR. See DONBOLĪ, AMĪR BEHRŪZ.

  • BEHRŪZ, ḎABĪḤ

    Paul Sprachman

    (1889-1971), Persian satirist,  writer of highly popular parodies and burlesques.

  • BEHŠAHR

    Eckart Ehlers

    older Ašraf, a town situated at 36°41′55″ north latitude and 53°32′30″ east longitude in the eastern part of central Māzandarān.

  • BEHSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    cross-reference

    See BĪSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR.

  • BEHZĀD

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    in the traditional history, the name of the black horse belonging successively to Sīāvoš, Kay Ḵosrow, and Goštāsb.

  • BEHZĀD, ḤOSAYN

    Layla Diba

    (1894-1968), lacquer artist, painter, and book illustrator.

  • BEHZĀD, KAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    Priscilla Soucek

    master painter, proverbial for his skill, active in Herat during the reign of the Timurid Ḥosayn Bāyqarā (1470-1506).

  • BEKTĀŠ, ḤĀJĪ

    Hamid Algar

    (d. 1270-71?), Khorasanian Sufi and eponym of the Bektāšī order, once widespread in Anatolia and the Balkans, with offshoots in Egypt, Iraq, and Western Iran.

  • BEKTĀŠĪYA

    Hamid Algar

    a syncretic and heterodox Sufi order, found principally in Anatolia and the Balkans, with offshoots in other regions, named after Ḥājī Bektāš and regarding him as its founding elder (pīr).

  • BELBĀS

    Pierre Oberling

    a former Kurdish tribal confederacy of northwestern Iran and northeastern Iraq.

  • BELDERČĪN

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (quail, Coturnix coturnix L.). The quail is mentioned in both the Bible and the Koran. Allusions to these Koranic reminiscences are occasionally found in Persian poetry. Various virtues are attributed to the quail in traditional or popular Islamic medicine.

  • BELGIAN-IRANIAN RELATIONS

    Annette Destrée

    Official diplomatic relations between Belgium and Iran date from the end of the nineteenth century.

  • BELGRĀMĪ, ʿABD-AL-JALĪL

    cross-reference

    See ʿABD-AL­-JALĪL BELGRĀMĪ.

  • BELGRĀMĪ, ĀZĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ.

  • BELL, GERTRUDE Margaret Lowthian

    G. Michael Wickens

    (1868-1926), British traveler, private scholar, archeolo­gist, sometime government servant, and a translator of Ḥāfeẓ.

  • BELLES LETTRES i. SASANIAN IRAN

    Werner Sundermann

    Belles lettres, that is, entertaining works, are not lacking in Sasanian Iran but can by no means match with their development in New Persian literature, both for quality and quantity.