Table of Contents

  • BANŪ ʿABBĀS

    Cross-Reference

    See ABBASID CALIPHATE.

  • BANŪ AMĀJŪR

    D. Pingree

    (or MĀJŪR), ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH  and his son Abu’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī, 10th-century astronomers.

  • BANŪ ʿANNĀZ

    cross-reference

    See ʿANNAZIDS.

  • BANŪ LAḴM

    Cross-Reference

    See ḤIRA.

  • BANŪ MĀJŪR

    cross-reference

    See BANŪ AMĀJŪR.

  • BANŪ MONAJJEM

    D. Pingree

    a family of intellectuals, closely connected to the caliphs of the 9th-10th centuries and claiming descent from an ancient Iranian lineage.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BANŪ MŪSĀ

    D. Pingree

    name applied to three brothers, 9th-century ʿAbbasid astronomers and engineers.

  • BANŪ OMAYYA

    cross-reference

    See OMMAYADS.

  • BĀNŪ PARS

    M. Boyce

    “Lady of Pārs,” the name of a Zoroastrian shrine in the mountains at the northern end of the Yazd plain.

  • BANŪ SĀJ

    W. Madelung

    a family named after its ancestor Abu’l-Sāj which served the ʿAbbasid caliphate (9tth-10th centuries).

  • BANŪ SĀSĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a name frequently applied in medieval Islam to beggars, rogues, charlatans, and tricksters of all kinds, allegedly so called because they stemmed from a legendary Shaikh Sāsān.

  • BAQĀʾ WA FANĀʾ

    G. Böwering

    Sufi term signifying “subsistence and passing away,” that is, passing away from worldly reality and being made subsistent in divine reality.

  • BĀQELĀ

    H. Aʿlam

    broad beans, the grains of Vicia faba L. In Iran, this crop is grown rather extensively in the Caspian provinces and, to a lesser extent, in the south and southwest.

  • BĀQER KHAN SĀLĀR-E MELLI

    A. Amanat

    one of the popular heroes of the Constitutional Revolution during the defense of Tabrīz in the period of the Lesser Autocracy (June, 1908-July, 1909).

  • BĀQER, ABŪ JAʿFAR MOḤAMMAD

    W. Madelung

    The fifth imam of the Twelver Shiʿites (7th-8th century).

  • BĀQĪBELLĀH NAQŠBANDĪ

    J. G. J. Ter Haar

    , ḴᵛĀJA ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD RAŻĪ-AL-DĪN OWAYSĪ (d. 1603). As a Naqšbandi, he represents the sober type of Sufi, adhering to the Islamic law (šarīʿa) and averse to ecstatic mystical experiences.

  • BĀQLAVĀ

    W. Eilers, N. Ramazani

    i. The word. ii. The sweet. Bāqlavā is a sweet pastry known throughout the Middle East, in Iran commonly made with almonds (bādām), less frequently with pistachios (pesta).

  • BAQLĪ, RŪZBEHĀN

    cross-reference

    , ShAIKH. See RŪZBEHĀN.

  • BAQQĀL-BĀZĪ

    F. Gaffary

    (lit. grocer play), a form of improvised, popular slapstick comedy; it is distinguished among the various forms of popular comedy in Iran by its own set of rules.

  • BĀR

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh, Ḥ. Farhūdī

    “audience.” The royal audience was one of the most important and enduring of the court ceremonies practiced in Iran.  i. From the Achaemenid through the Safavid period.  ii. The Qajar and Pahlavi periods.

  • BAR HEBRAEUS

    Cross-Reference

    (b. Malaṭīa, 1225; d. Marāḡa, 1286), Syriac historian and polymath. See EBN AL-ʿEBRĪ, ABU’L-FARAJ.

  • BAR KŌNAY, THEODORE

    J. P. Asmussen

    8th-9th-century Nestorian teacher and writer from Kaškar in Mesopotamia. His The Book of Scholiais notable for its sections on Zarathustra and Mani.

  • BAR-E MEHR

    cross-reference

    a fire temple in Yazd. See DAR-E MEHR.

  • BARĀDŪST

    A. Hassanpour

    name of a Kurdish tribe, region, mountain range, river, and amirate. The tribespeople, mostly settled now, are Shafeʿite Sunnis and speak the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish mixed with the neighboring Sorani dialects.

  • BARAḠĀNĪ, MOḤAMMAD-TAQĪ

    D. M. MacEoin

    QAZVĪNĪ, ŠAHĪD-E ṮĀLEṮ, MOLLĀ, an important Shiʿite ʿālem of Qazvīn (d. 1847).

  • BARAK

    T. Bīneš

    a kind of firm and durable woven cloth used for coats, overcoats (labbāda), shawls (in Afghanistan), čūḵas (surcoats for shepherds) and leggings.

  • BARAKĪ BARAK

    C. M. Kieffer

    locality in the province of Lōgar, Afghanistan,  the abode of the country’s last Ōrmuṛī speakers.

  • BĀRAKZAY DYNASTY

    cross-reference

    See AFGHANISTAN x. Political History ; and DORRĀNĪ.

  • BĀRAKZĪ

    D. Balland

    (singular Bārakzay), an ethnic name common among the Pashtun of Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Baluch of southeastern Iran. The oldest settlement area is between Herat and the approaches to the Helmand valley.

  • BARĀMEKA

    Cross-Reference

    See BARMAKIDS.

  • BĀRĀN

    D. Balland

    It is interesting to note that in modern Iranian languages violent and dangerous rainfall events are often designated by borrowings from Arabic (ṭūfān for typhoon, barq for lightning, raʿd for thunder, sayl for sudden deluge), whereas for phenomena considered beneficial a terminology of Iranian origin has been preserved.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BARANĪ, ŻĪĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    P. Hardy

    Indian-born Muslim historian who wrote in the period of the Delhi sultanate (ca. 1285-1357).

  • BARĀQ BĀBĀ

    H. Algar

    (b. 1257-58, d. 1307-08), a crypto-shamanic Anatolian Turkman dervish close to two of the Mongol rulers of Iran.

  • BARĀQ KHAN

    cross-reference

    See NOWRŪZ AḤMAD KHAN.

  • BARAQĪ

    H. Algar

    , ḴᵛĀJA ʿABD-ALLĀH, 12th-century Sufi of Bukhara.

  • BARAŠNOM

    M. Boyce

    the chief Zoroastrian purification rite, consisting of a triple cleansing, with gōmēz (cow’s urine), dust, and water, followed by nine nights’ seclusion.

  • BARĀ’A

    E. Kohlberg

    an Imami theological term denoting dissociation from the enemies of the imams. During the conflict between ʿAlī and Moʿāwīa, formulas of dissociation were used by both parties.

  • BĀRBAD

    A. Tafażżolī

    minstrel-poet of the court of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 591-628 A.D.).

  • BARBARO, GIOSAFAT

    A. M. Piemontese

    Venetian merchant, traveler, and diplomat (1413-94), appointed Venetian ambassador to Persia (1473-78); author of a travel account.

  • BARBAṬ

    J. During

    the prototype of a family of short-necked lutes characterized by a rather flat, pear-shaped sound box.

  • BARBERRY

    EIr

    (zerešk; Berberis spp., family Berberidaceae). Species of this genus are found in the northern, eastern, and southeastern highlands of Iran.

  • BARBIER DE MEYNARD, CHARLES ADRIEN CASIMIR

    Ch. Pellat

    French orientalist (1826-1908). Among his works, the Tableau littéraire du Khorassan and Dictionnaire géographique attest the excellence of his Persian scholarship.

  • BARD-E BAL

    L. Vanden Berghe

    a necropolis excavated in 1969-70 by the Belgian archeological mission in Iran, Īlām Province.

  • BARD-E BOT

    Cross-Reference

    See ELYMAIS.

  • BARD-E NEŠĀNDA

    K. Schippmann

    a complex of ancient ruins in Ḵūzestān, situated 18 km northwest of the town of Masjed-e Solaymān (where similar ruins exist) at 675 m altitude on the edge of the Baḵtīārī mountains.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI

    Multiple Authors

    Slaves and slavery.  i. In the Achaemenid period. ii. In the Sasanian period. iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion. iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery. v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI i. Achaemenid Period

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    At the beginning of the Achaemenid period, the institution of slavery was still poorly developed in Iran. In Media a custom existed whereby a poor man could place himself at the disposal of a rich person if the latter agreed to feed him. The position of such a man was similar to that of a slave.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI ii. In the Sasanian period

    Maria Macuch

    The most commonly used expressions designating slaves in the Middle Persian sources are anšahrīg, literally “foreigner,” and bandag, literally “bound.” The latter term does not exclusively designate the slave but is used of every subject of the sovereign.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion

    C. E. Bosworth

    Early Islamic society was essentially a slave-holding one, and it seems likely that Iranian society of the time exhibited two of the types of slavery known elsewhere in the pre-modern Old World—agricultural/industrial slavery and domestic slavery.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery

    Willem Floor

    After the Mongol period, the manner in which white slaves were obtained basically remained unchanged, that is, warfare and raids continued to be the main slave-producing activities.