Table of Contents

  • AYRARAT

    R. H. Hewsen

    region of central Armenia in the broad plain of the upper Araxes.

  • ĀYRĪMLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (in Persian often Āyromlū), Turkic tribe of western Azerbaijan.

  • ĀYROM, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    M. Amanat

    army commander and the head of the police under Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-41).

  • AYVĀN

    O. Grabar

    (palace, veranda, balcony, portico), a Persian word used also in Arabic (īwān, līwān) and Turkish.

  • AYVĀN-E KESRĀ

    E. J. Keall

    Ayvān-e Kesrā has been described in Arabic and Persian sources and is the subject of a moving qaṣīda by the poet Ḵāqānī who visited its ruins in mid-6th/12th century. Once the most famous of all Sasanian monuments and a landmark in the history of architecture, it is now only an imposing brick ruin.

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  • ʿAYYĀR

    Cl. Cahen, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a noun meaning literally “vagabond,” applied to members of medieval fotowwa (fotūwa) brotherhoods and comparable popular organizations.

  • ʿAYYĀŠĪ, ABU’L-NAŻR MOḤAMMAD

    I. K. Poonawala

    Imami jurist and scholar of the 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries.

  • AYYOHAʾL-WALAD

    I. Abbas

    a short treatise by Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazālī Ṭūsī (fl. 450-505/1058-1111), originally composed in Persian.

  • AYYŪB KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    B. AMĪR ŠĒR ʿALĪ KHAN. See MOḤAMMAD AYYŪB KHAN.

  • AYYUBIDS

    R. S. Humphreys

    (Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.

  • ʿAYYŪQĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.

  • ĀZ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.

  • ĀZĀD

    M. Bazin

    Zelkova crenata or Siberian elm, a tree of the Ulmaceae family, for which also other scientific names, such as Zelkova carpinifolia, Zelkova hyrcana, Planera crenata, and Planera Richardi, have been proposed.

  • ĀZĀD (Iranian Nobility)

    M. L. Chaumont, C. Toumanoff

    (older ĀZĀT), a class of the Iranian nobility.

  • ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ

    M. Siddiqi

    Major Indo-Muslim poet, biographer, and composer of chronograms, also known as Ḥassān-al-Hend (fl. 1116-1200/1704-86).

  • ĀZĀD FĪRŪZ

    A. Tafażżolī

    governor of Bahrain and the surrounding area in the time of Ḵosrow (probably Ḵosrow II Parvēz).

  • ĀZĀD KHAN AFḠĀN

    J. R. Perry

    (d. 1781), a major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47).

  • ĀZĀD TABRIZI

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    physician, anthologist, and translator (b. Tehran, ca. 1854; d. Paris, 1936).

  • ĀZĀD, ʿABD-AL-QADIR

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    ABD-AL-QADIR AZAD published a newspaper, which he named Āzād (liberal, free), in Mašhad. In the editorials of this newspaper he attacked the government, and criticized the authorities severely. His paper was eventually banned by the newly-formed government of Reżā Shah Pahlavi, and ʿAbd-al-Qadir, who had by now assumed the name “Āzād” after his newspaper, was himself imprisoned.

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  • ĀZĀD, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    K. N. Pandita

    Scholar and writer in Urdu and Persian, born about 1834 in Delhi.