Table of Contents

  • ĀS

    Mehdi Roschanzamir

    a game of playing cards which became popular in the Qajar era, and hence replaced ganjafa, the card game associated with the Safavids.

  • ĀS

    cross-reference

    “Ossetia”; ĀSĪ “Ossetic, Ossete.” See ALANS; ALBANIA; ASII; OSSETIC.

  • ĀŠ

    W. Eilers, ʿE. Elāhī, M. Boyce

    (thick soup), the general term for a traditional Iranian dish comparable to the French potage.

  • AṦA

    B. Schlerath, P. O. Skjærvø

    “truth” in Avestan. The Indo-Iranian concept of truth is preserved in the Gāθās and in the younger Avesta unchanged.

  • AṦA VAHIŠTA

    cross-reference

    See ARDWAHIŠT.

  • ASʿAD B. NAṢR

    Cross-Reference

    See ABZARĪ.

  • ASAD B. SĀMĀNḴODĀ

    C. E. Bosworth

    ancestor of the Samanid dynasty.

  • ASADĀBĀD (1)

    C. E. Bosworth

    name of several towns in medieval sources, including the modern city.

  • ASADĀBĀD

    D. Balland

    (or ASʿADĀBĀD), the official name of a small town in eastern Afghanistan, capital of Konar (Kunar) Province.

  • ASADĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR B. AḤMAD.

  • ASADĀBĀDĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    Cross-Reference

    See AFḠĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN.

  • ASADALLĀH EṢFAHĀNĪ

    A. S. Melikian-Chirvani

    a signature borne by hundreds of fine blades, which is occasionally followed by dates ranging from the 17th to the 19th century.

  • ASADĪ ṬŪSĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (d. 1072-73), poet, linguist and copyist, from Ṭūs in Khorasan.

  • ĀṢAF AL-LOḠĀT

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    title of a Persian dictionary.

  • ĀṢAF KHAN

    P. Saran

    10th/16th century Mughal official and military commander.

  • ĀṢAF-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-WAHHĀB

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ĀṢAF-AL-DAWLA, ALLĀHYĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ĀṢAFĪ HERAVĪ

    A. ʿA. Rajāʾī

    a minor poet of the Timurid period (d. 923/1517).

  • ASAGARTA

    W. Eilers

    an ancient Iranian tribe of uncertain location; they must have dwelt in the east of the kingdom. 

  • ASĀLEM

    M. Bazin

    a mountainous district in Ṭāleš, now a dehestān of the central baḵš of the šahrestān of Ṭawāleš, province of Gīlān.

  • ASĀLEMI dialect

    Cross-Reference

    See ṬĀLEŠI.

  • AṢAMM, ABU BAKR

    F. W. Zimmermann

    (d. 200/815-6 or 201/816-7), Muʿtazilite of Baṣra.

  • ĀŠAQLŪN

    Cross-Reference

    Manichean demon. See ĀSRĒŠTĀR.

  • AʿSAR, ʿALAWAYH ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALAWAYH AL-AʿSAR.

  • ĀŠʿARĪ, ABŪ MŪSĀ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ MŪSĀ AŠʿARĪ.

  • AŠʿARĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    C. E. Bosworth

    scholastic theologian (motakallem) and founder of the theological school of the Ašʿarīya.

  • ĀŠʿARĪYA

    A. Heinen

    (or Asḥʿarism), an Islamic school of theological thought founded by Abu’l-Ḥasan Ašʿarī.

  • ASĀS

    H. Halm

    “foundation, basis,” a degree of the Ismaʿili daʿwa hierarchy.

  • ASĀṬĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See MYTHOLOGY.

  • AŠAVAN (possessing Truth)

    G. Gnoli

    (Avestan), lit. “possessing truth (aša),”  referring to humans, Ahura Mazdā, and the divine or angelic entities.

  • ASĀWERA

    C. E. Bosworth

    Arabic broken plural form of a singular oswār(ī), eswār(ī), early recognized by Arab philologists as a loanword from Persian meaning “cavalryman.”

  • ʿAŠĀYER

    F. Towfīq

    “tribes” in Iran. 1. Definitions. 2. Historical background. 3. Population figures. 4. Territorial distribution: (a) Lor and Lak tribes; (b) Kurdish tribes; (c) Turkish tribes; (d) Arab tribes; (e) Baluch and Brahui tribes. 5. Organization. 6. Economy.

  • ASB

    A. Sh. Shahbazi, F. Thordarson, ʿA. Solṭānī Gordfarāmarzī, C. E. Bosworth

    “horse.”  From the dawn of history the Iranians have celebrated the horse in their art and in their literature.  i. In pre-Islamic Iran.  ii. Among the Scythians.  iii. In Islamic times.  iv. In Afghanistan.

  • ASB-SAVĀRĪ

    J.-P. Digard

    "horse-riding." The Iranian lands, in the course of their long history, have been the source of major advances in the techniques of equitation.

  • ĀŠBANAKKUŠ

    M. Mayrhofer

    name of an Iranian in the Persepolis Fortification Tablets.

  • ASBĀNBAR

    Cross-Reference

    See MADĀʾEN.

  • ASBĪĀN

    cross-reference

    See ĀBTĪN.

  • ĀŠEʿʿAT AL-LAMAʿĀT

    A. E. Khairallah

    (The rays of the flashes), a detailed commentary by Nūr-al-dīn ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmī (817/1414-898/1492).

  • ʿĀṢEM EFENDĪ

    T. Yazici

    (1168/1755-1236/1819), an Ottoman Turkish linguist and chronicler.

  • AŠƎM VOHŪ

    B. Schlerath

    the second of the four great prayers of the Zoroastrians, the others being: Ahuna vairyō (Y. 27.13), Yeŋˊhē hātąm (Y. 27.15), and Airyəˊmā išyō (Y. 54.1).

  • ʿĀṢEMI, Moḥammad

    Habib Borjian

    (also Osimi and Asimov) Tajik educator, scholar, statesman, and humanist (b. Ḵojand, 1 September 1920; d. Dushanbe, 29 July 1996). His primary subject of interest was philosophy in the broad sense of the word, with particular attention to the achievements made in the East. 

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  • ʿĀŠEQ

    C. F. Albright

    in Azerbaijan, Iran, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, a poet and minstrel who accompanies his singing on a long-necked, fretted, plucked chordophone known as a sāz.

  • ʿĀŠEQ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    K. Amīrī Fīrūzkūhī

    a Persian poet of the 12th/18th century (pen name ʿĀšeq).

  • ʿĀŠEQ HAWĀSĪ

    C. F. Albright

    “melody of the ʿāšeq,” term referring to (1) a type of poem often sung by ʿāšeqs in Iranian Azerbaijan and (2) the typical manner of singing the poem and the manner of accompanying it on the musical instrument.

  • ASFĀD JOŠNAS

    A. Tafażżolī

    a native of Ardašīr-ḵorra (Gūr, Fīrūzābād) who commanded the supporters of Šērōya.

  • ASFAND

    H. Gaube

    a medieval district (kūra) of the quarter (robʿ) of Nīšāpūr of Khorasan province.

  • ASFĀNŪR

    Cross-Reference

    See MADĀʾEN.

  • ASFĀR AL-ARBAʿA

    F. Rahman

    (The four journeys), title of the magnum opus of Mollā Ṣadrā (d. 1050/1641).

  • ASFĀR B. ŠĪRŪYA

    C. E. Bosworth

    early 10th-century military leader during the period of Samanid expansion.

  • ASFEZĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or ASFŌZAR), designation of a district (kūra) and later its chief town in the Herat quarter of Khorasan.

  • ASFEZĀRĪ, ABŪ ḤĀTEM

    D. Pingree

    5th/12th-century astronomer, of whose life almost nothing is known.

  • ASFĪJĀB

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or ASBĪJĀB, ESBĪJĀB) a town and district of medieval Transoxania.

  • ASHKHABAD

    B. Spuler

    (Russian; Persian ʿEšqābād), since the Soviet period the capital of Turkmenistan.

  • ASHRAF, GHODSIEH

    Mahnaze A. da Silveira

    Throughout her life, Ghodsieh Ashraf repeatedly observed, not without pride, that her material belongings could be packed into one suitcase. Though she may not have been an easy taskmaster, she was served by an unflagging joie de vivre and cut a figure distinct from the traditional models of her times.

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  • AŠI

    B. Schlerath, P. O. Skjærvø

    Avestan feminine noun meaning “thing attained, reward, share, portion, recompense” and, as a personification, the goddess “Reward, Fortune.”

  • ĀSĪĀ (or āsīāb, Mill)

    M. Harverson

    or āsīāb, "mill." Before World War II most grain ground to produce flour for the staple in the Iranian diet, bread, was processed by traditionally powered mills, principally watermills. Except in remote areas they have been replaced by diesel or electrically-driven mills, and old machinery has fallen derelict.

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  • Asia Institute

    Richard N. Frye

    founded in 1928 in New York City as the American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology, incorporated 1930 in the state of New York and active in Shiraz 1965-79. In its affiliation, functions, and publications, the Institute has had a complicated and eventful career, illustrating some of the vicissitudes of Iranian studies during the twentieth century.

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  • ASIA INSTITUTE, BULLETIN OF THE

    Richard N. Frye

    originally Bulletin of the American Institute of Persian Art and Archaeology from July 1931; and the first issue was edited by Arthur Upham Pope, director of the Institute.

  • ASIA MINOR

    M. Weiskopf

    Irano-Anatolian relations. The Iranians left their imprint above all on the art of governing.

  • ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL

    Cross-Reference

    See BENGAL ii. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.

  • ASII

    F. Thordarson

    (or ASIANI), an ancient nomadic people of Central Asia, who about 130 B.C. put an end to Greek rule in Bactria.

  • ASINAEUS AND ANILAEUS

    M. Smith

    figure in Josephus’ Jewish Antiquities.

  • ASĪR EṢFAHĀNĪ

    K. Amīrī Fīrūzkūhī

    a poet of the 11th/17th century (d. 1049/1639).

  • ĀŠIRVĀD

    M. F. Kanga

    “blessing, benediction,” a set of prayers and admonitions recited by the two officiating Parsi priests in the Zoroastrian marriage ceremony.

  • ʿASJADĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

     a poet of the first half of the 5th/11th century.

  • ASK SPRINGS

    E. Ehlers

    The Ask springs, like those in other places around the base of Damāvand, are as yet used only by the local inhabitants. It remains to be seen whether they would repay commercial development (in the form of spa baths, bottling plants, etc.).

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  • ĀŠKĀBĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ASHKHABAD.

  • ĀŠKĀNĪĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ARSACIDS.

  • ʿASKAR MOKRAM

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of the medieval Islamic province of Ahvāz (Ḵūzestān) and also the name of the district of which it was the administrative center.

  • ʿASKARĀN

    KAMRAN EKBAL

    village in Qarābāḡ about seven miles northeast of Stepanakert in the eastern Caucasus, where peace negotiations between Russia and Persia took place in 1225/1810.

  • ʿASKARĪ

    H. Halm

    the 11th imam of the Twelver Shiʿites.

  • ʿASKARĪ, ABŪ HELĀL

    W. M. Watt

    philologist and poet born about the middle of the 4th/10th century.

  • ʿAŠKARĪ, ʿALĪ AL-HĀDĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ AL-HĀDĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN AL-ʿASKARĪ.

  • ĀŠKAŠ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    an Iranian hero in the reign of Kay Ḵosrow.

  • ĀŠKBŌS

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a Turanian hero from Kašān or Košān in the story of “Kāmūs-e Kašānī,” in the Šāh-nāma.

  • ASLAM, ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

     See ABU’L-QĀSEM MOḤAMMAD ASLAM.

  • ĀṢLĀNDŪZ

    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    (or AṢLĀNDŪZ), a small village in the northeast of the Iranian province of East Azerbaijan.

  • ĀSMĀN

    A. Tafażżolī

    (sky, heavens), in Zoroastrian cosmology the first part of the material (gētīg) world created by Ohrmazd.

  • ASMĀR AL-ASRĀR

    S. S. K. Hussaini

    (Night-discourses of secrets), theosophical treatise in Persian composed by a 9th/15th century Češtī Sufi of India, Sayyed Moḥammad Ḥosaynī Gīsūdarāz (d. 825/1422), popularly known as Ḵᵛāǰa-ye Bandanavāz.

  • ASMUSSEN, Jes Peter

    Werner Sundermann

    scholar of Iranian studies (1928-2002).

  • AṢNĀF

    W. M. Floor

    the plural of ṣenf (class, kind category), collective designation of guilds in Iran since the 11th/17th century.

  • ĀSNATAR

    W. W. Malandra

    one of the eight Zoroastrian priests (ratu) necessary for the performance of the yasna ritual.

  • ĀŠŌ-DĀD

    M. F. Kanga

    Zoroastrian (Pazend) term for the remuneration to a priest for his services.

  • ĀŠOFTA

    N. Parvīn

    a Persian magazine published in Tehran 1325 Š./1946-1336 Š./1957.

  • ĀŠŌGAR

    Cross-Reference

    See AŠŌQAR.

  • AŚOKA

    J. G. De Casparis, G. Fussman, P. O. Skjærvø

     Mauryan emperor of India (ca. 272-231 B.C.).

  • ASOŁIK

    Michel van Esbroeck

     “the singer,” the usual name of Stephen of Tarōn.

  • ĀŠŌQAR

    EIr

    in Syriac sources the name of a deity.

  • ĀSŌRISTĀN

    G. Widengren

    name of the Sasanian province of Babylonia.

  • ASP

    Cross-Reference

    See ASB.

  • ASP-SAVĀRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ASB-SAVĀRĪ.

  • ASPABAD

    Cross-Reference

    or ASPAPAT. See ASPBED.

  • ASPAČANĀ

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    a senior official under Darius the Great and Xerxes.

  • ASPAND

    Cross-Reference

    See ESFAND.

  • ASPARUKH

    D. M. Lang

    a Middle Iranian proper name attested in ancient Georgia and early medieval Bulgaria.

  • ASPASII

    C. J. Brunner

    one of the tribal people encountered by Alexander the Great in Gandhāra, 327-26 B.C.

  • ASPASTES

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    Greek form of an Old Persian name attested in the Achaemenid period.

  • ASPATHINES

    Cross-Reference

    See ASPAČANĀ.

  • ĀŠPAZ, ʿABDALLĀH HERAVĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDALLĀH HERAVĪ.

  • ĀŠPAZ-ḴĀNA

    ʿE. Elāhī

    “kitchen.”

  • ĀŠPAZĪ

    B. Fragner

    "cooking." The history of food consumption in Iran is primarily part of the history of agriculture and stockbreeding on the Iranian plateau.

  • ASPBED

    M. L. Chaumont

    “master of horses, chief of cavalry,” Parthian title attested in the Nisa documents and the inscription of Šāpūr I on the Kaʿba-ye Zardošt.

  • ASPET

    C. Toumanoff

    Armenian title.

  • ʿAṢR-E ENQELĀB

    N. Parvīn

    a journal of news and political comment published at Tehran in 1333-1915.

  • ʿAṢR-E JADĪD

    N. Parvīn

    (New era), the name of several journals and a magazine published in Iran at various times.

  • ĀŠRAF GĪLĀNĪ

    M. Rahman

    (1870-1934), poet and leading journalist of the Constitutional era.

  • ĀŠRAF ḠILZAY

    D. Balland

    the Afghan chief who ruled as Shah over part of Iran from 1137/1725 to 1142/1729.

  • ĀŠRAF

    Cross-Reference

    town in Māzandarān. See BEHŠAHR.

  • ĀŠRAF-ʿALĪ KHAN FOḠĀN

    M. Baqir

    (or FEḠĀN), poet writing in Persian and Urdu (1140-86/1727-72).

  • ĀŠRAFI

    B. Fragner

    term used from the mid-15th century for a gold coin first minted in Mamluk Egypt in 810/1407-08.

  • ĀŠRAFĪ

    A. Hairi

    religious leader, born sometime before 1235/1819 and died 1315/1897-98.

  • ASRĀR AL-ḤEKAM

    M. Moḥaqqeq

    the title of a book written for Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qāǰār, by the philosopher Ḥāǰǰ Mollā Hādī Sabzavāri (1212-89/1797-1872).

  • ASRĀR AL-TAWḤĪD

    H. Algar

     principal source for the life and teachings of the well-known mystic of Khorasan, Abū Saʿid b. Abi’l-Ḵayr (b. 357/967, d. 440/1049).

  • ĀSRĒŠTĀR

    P. O. Skjærvø

    in Middle Persian Manichean texts a kind of demons, often associated with the mazans.

  • ĀSRŌN

    EIr

    Middle Persian form of Avestan āθravan.

  • ʿAṢṢĀR TABRĪZĪ

    Z. Safa

    poet, scholar, and mystic of the 8th/14th century.

  • ʿAṢṢĀR, Sayyed MOḤAMMAD-KĀẒEM

    Ahmad Kazemi Mousavi and EIr

    (b. 1302/1884-85; d. Tehran, 19 Dey 1353 Š./9 January 1975), outstanding Shiʿite scholar and professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran.

  • ASSARHADDON

    J. A. Delaunay

    king of Assyria 680-69 B.C., son of Sennacherib and the Arameo-Babylonian princess Zakūtu.

  • ASSASSINS

    Cross-Reference

    (Ar. Ḥaššāšin), pejorative name given to Neẓāri Ismaʿilis by their adversaries during the Middle Ages. See ISMAʿILISM iii. History.

  • AŠŠURBANIPAL

    J. A. Delaunay

    The Cimmerians (Gimirru) had entered Assyria about 700 B.C. but were stopped by Assarhaddon and so turned towards Lydia (Luddu). The king of Lydia, Gyges (Gūgu, Guggu), who had founded the Mermandes dynasty, following the advice of the god Aššur in a dream, sent a delegation to Aššurbanipal to ask for assistance.

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  • ASSYRIA

    M. Dandamayev and È. Grantovskiĭ, M. Dandamayev, K. Schippmann

    i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its relations with Iran. ii. Achaemenid Aθurā. iii. Parthian Assur.

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN

    R. Macuch, A. Ishaya

    The ancient name “Assyrian,” derived from that of the god Aššur, designated the Semitic population of north Mesopotamia and their capital city. Even before the final destruction of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C., its population had become largely Aramaic-speaking; knowledge of its ancient language, Akkadian, had become restricted to the educated people and to scribes.

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  • ASTABED

    M. L. Chaumont

    The word astabid occurs in two Syriac texts as the title of a high-ranking Iranian officer and is applied to three different individuals.

  • ĀŠTĀD

    G. Gnoli

    Old Iranian female deity of rectitude and justice.

  • ĀŠTĀD YAŠT

    P. O. Skjærvø

    Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, the goddess of rectitude, does not mention her.

  • ĀSTĀN-E QODS-E RAŻAWĪ

    ʿA.-Ḥ. Mawlawī, M. T.Moṣṭafawī, and E. Šakūrzāda

    the complex of buildings surrounding the tomb of the Imam ʿAlī al-Reżā at Mašhad.

  • ĀSTĀNA

    Eckart Ehlers, Marcel Bazin, and Christian Bromberger

    a township and a district of Lāhīǰān in the province of Gīlān.

  • ĀSTĀRĀ

    M. Bazin

    The rural inhabitants grow rice, wheat, and vegetables on the coastal plain and wheat, corn (maize), and fruit trees on the lower slopes of the mountains, and graze flocks and herds between qešlāq and yeylāq. Many find it necessary to supplement their incomes with earnings from work as migrant laborers in the cities.

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  • ASTARĀBĀD

    C. E. Bosworth, S. Blair

    (or ESTERĀBĀD), the older Islamic name for the modern town of Gorgān in northeastern Iran, and also the name of an administrative province in Qajar times.

  • ASTARĀBĀD BAY

    E. Ehlers

    a lagoon in the extreme southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea.

  • ASTARĀBĀD-ARDAŠĪR

    Cross-Reference

    See KARḴ MAYSĀN.

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR ASTARĀBĀDĪ.

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, FAŻLALLĀH

    H. Algar

    (d. 796/1394), founder of the Ḥorūfī religion.

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MAHDĪ KHAN

    J. R. Perry

    court secretary and historiographer to Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1148-60/1736-47).

  • ASTARĀBĀDĪ, MOḤAMMAD AMĪN

    E. Kohlberg

     founder of the 17th-century Aḵbārī school.

  • AŠTARAK

    KAMRAN EKBAL

    a village in the Ābārān district about six miles northwest of Yerevan (Iravān) in a mountainous region of the Caucasus.

  • ĀŠTARJĀN

    R. Hillenbrand

    (OŠTORJĀN), name of a subdistrict (dehestān) and its chief village, lying southwest of Isfahan.

  • ĀSTARKĪ

    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    (or AŠTARKĪ), one sub-tribe of the six which presently constitute the Dūrkī tribe of the Haft Lang confederation of the Baḵtīārī people.

  • ASTAUENE

    Cross-Reference

    Parthian province to the north of Hyrcania (Gorgān). See OSTOVĀ.

  • ĀŠTĪĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    the name both of an administrative subdistrict (dehestān) and its chef-lieu in the First Province (ostān).

  • ĀŠTĪĀNI

    E. Yarshater

    the dialect of Āštīān, belongs to the group of “Central” dialects spoken in Kashan and Isfahan provinces and some adjacent areas.

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, ḤASAN

    H. Algar

    (d. 1319/1901), late 19-century moǰtahed who played an important role in the campaign against the tobacco concession of 1309/1891.

  • ĀŠTĪĀNĪ, MAHDĪ

    H. Algar

    known as Mīrzā Kūček (1306-1372/1888-89 to 1952-53), a scholar who excelled in both the traditional (manqūl) and rational (maʿqūl) sciences.

  • ĀŠTIŠAT

    M. Van Esbroeck

    religious center of pagan Armenia and first official Christian see.

  • ASTŌDĀN

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    “bone-receptacle, ossuary.” The term has an important place in the vocabulary of ancient Iranian funerary rites.

  • ASṬORLĀB

    D. Pingree

    The altitude of the sun or of the star is determined by an observation through the alidade on the back; the rim of the upper two halves of the back is graduated from 0° to 90° from the horizontal diameter (horizon) to the apex (zenith).

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  • ASTRAKHAN

    B. Spuler

    a town (Russian since 1556) on the river Volga.

  • ASTROLABE

    Cross-Reference

    See ASṬORLĀB.

  • ASTROLOGY AND ASTRONOMY IN IRAN

    D. Pingree, C. J. Brunner

    Highly relevant are the subjects Mithraism and Zurvanism. It is here assumed that the exposure of Zoroastrian priests to Near Eastern divination, from the Achaemenid period on, helped foster cosmological speculation; and this developed a body of myth around Zurwān “Time,” who must already have served as a personification of the fructifying year-cycle.

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  • ASTVAṰ.ƎRƎTA

    M. Boyce

    the Avestan name of the Saošyant, the future Savior of Zoroastrianism.

  • ASTWIHĀD

    M. F. Kanga

    the demon of death in the Avesta and later Zoroastrian texts.

  • ASTYAGES

    R. Schmitt

    the last Median king.

  • ʿĀŠŪRĀʾ

    M. Ayoub

    tenth day of Moḥarram, the first month of the Islamic calendar; for Sunnis it is a day on which fasting is recommended, and for Shiʿites a day of mourning for the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn.

  • ĀŠŪRĀDA

    J. Qāʾem-Maqāmī

    (or Āšūrʾāda, ʿAšūrʾāda), formerly (until ca. 1308-09 Š./1930) three adjacent islands, now part of the end of the Mīānkāla peninsula of Māzandarān, at the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea.

  • ASWĀR

    P. O. Skjærvø

    (Middle Persian) “horseman.” In Old Persian asabāra designated the horseman as opposed to the foot-soldier.

  • ASYLUM

    Cross-Reference

    religious, secular, and extraterritorial. See BAST.

  • ʿAṬĀʾ SAMARQANDĪ

    D. Pingree

    author of a set of astronomical tables for an unidentified prince of the Yuan dynasty of China, 1362-63.

  • ATĀBAK

    C. Cahen

    Turkish atabeg, lit. “father-chief,” a Turkish title of rank which first appears, at least under this name, with the early Saljuqs.

  • ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM, AMĪN-AL-SOLṬĀN

    J. Calmard

    grand vizier under the last three Qajar kings.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E ĀḎARBĀYJĀN

    K. A. Luther

    an influential family of military slave origin, also called Ildegozids, ruled parts of Arrān and Azerbaijan from about 530/1135-36 to 622/1225.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E FĀRS

    B. Spuler

    princes of the Salghurid dynasty who ruled Fārs in the 6th/12th and 7th/13th centuries.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E LORESTĀN

    B. Spuler

    rulers of Lorestān, part of the Zagros highlands of southwestern Iran in the later middle ages. Lorestān had a mixed population of Lors, Kurds, and others.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E MARĀḠA

    K. A. Luther

     a family of local rulers of Marāḡa who ruled from the early 6th/12th century until 605/1208-09.

  • ATĀBAKĀN-E YAZD

    S. C. Fairbanks

    a dynasty which governed Yazd in the 6th/12th century.

  • ATABAKI, PARVIZ

    Farhad Taheri

    (1928 - 2004), a Persian diplomat, literary scholar, translator, and editor.

  • ʿATABĀT

    H. Algar

    “thresholds,” more fully, ʿatabāt-e ʿalīyāt or ʿatabāt-e (or aʿtāb-emoqaddasa “the lofty or sacred thresholds,” the Shiʿite shrine cities of Iraq

  • ATABAY, CYRUS

    Saeid Rezvani

    (1929-1996), Iranian poet and translator who wrote poetry exclusively in German and translated works on Persian literature into German. 

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  • ATĀʾĪYA ORDER

    D. DeWeese

    a branch of the Yasavīya Sufi brotherhood especially active in Ḵᵛārazm from the 8th/14th century.

  • ĀṮĀR AL-BĀQĪA

    D. Pingree

     (The Chronology of Ancient Nations), a historical work by Bīrūnī, composed at the age of 27, in 1000 CE.

  • ĀṮĀR AL-BELĀD

    C. E. Bosworth

    the title of a geographical work composed in Arabic during the 7th/13th century by the Persian scholar Abū Yaḥyā Zakarīyāʾ b. Moḥammad Qazvīnī.

  • ĀṮĀR AL-WOZARĀʾ

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    a biographical work on ministers and other officials, their policies and literary works, by Sayf al-dīn Ḥāǰǰī b. Neẓām ʿAqīlī, written at Herat between 1470-71 and 1486-87.

  • ĀṮĀR-E ʿAJAM

    M. Dabīrsīaqī

    a study of the geographical features and historical monuments of Fārs.

  • ĀTAŠ

    M. Boyce

    “fire” in Zoroastrianism. The hearth fire, providing warmth, light and comfort, was regarded by the ancient Iranians as the visible embodiment of the divinity Ātar, who lived among men as their servant and master. Fire was also present at their religious ceremonies.

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  • ĀTAŠ Journal

    N. Parvīn

    (Fire), a Persian journal of news and political comment, published in Tehran, 1946-60.

  • ĀTAŠ NIYĀYIŠN

    M. Boyce and F. M. Kotwal

    the fifth in a group of five Zoroastrian prayers, which is addressed to fire and its divinity.

  • ĀTAŠ, AḤMAD

    cross-reference

    See  ATEŞ, AHMED.

  • ĀTAŠ, Ḵᵛāja ʿAlī Ḥaydar

    M. Baqir

    late 18th to early 19th-century Indo-Muslim poet in Persian and Urdu.

  • ĀTAŠ-ZŌHR

    M. Boyce and F. M. Kotwal

    or ātaš-zōr, a Middle Persian term for the Zoroastrian ritual.

  • ĀTAŠDĀN

    M. Boyce

     “place of fire, fire-holder,” designates the altar-like repository for a sacred wood-fire in a Zoroastrian place of worship.

  • ATASHI, MANUCHEHR

    Saeed Rezaei

    Missing the bucolic backdrop of his childhood, Manucher Atashi soon dropped out ofschool and left the city to live in Čāh-kutāh, a village near Bušehr, where he worked as a shepherd for a short time and fell in love with a young girl, who eventually married another man, and died at an early age.

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  • ĀTAŠKADA

    M. Boyce

     “house of fire,” a Zoroastrian term for a consecrated building in which there is an ever-burning sacred fire.

  • ATEŞ, AHMED

    Tahsin Yazici

    (1911-1966), Turkish orientalist and scholar of Persian literature.

  • ATHENAIOS OF NAUCRATIS

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    author of the Deipnosophistai, his only extant work, in which in about a hundred passages he deals with things Persian.

  • AṮĪR AḴSĪKATĪ

    Z. Safa

    Poet of the 6th/12th century with a distinctive style.

  • AṮĪR OWMĀNĪ

    Z. Safa

    Poet of the ʿErāqī (western Iranian) school of the 7th/13th century (d. 665/1266).

  • AṮĪR-AL-DĪN ABHARĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABHARĪ SAMARQANDĪ, AṮĪR-AL-DĪN.

  • ATKINSON, James A.

    A. Karimi-Hakkak

    (1780­-1852), a notable British orientalist, a scholar of the Persian language and literature, and the translator of Persia literature.

  • ATOSSA

    R. Schmitt

    Achaemenid queen.

  • ʿAṬR

    F. Aubaile-Sallenave

    “perfume” (Arabic ʿeṭr, plur. ʿoṭūr; in Persian also ʿaṭrīyāt, perfumes), a Semitic term also attested in Syriac and Amharic.

  • ATRAK

    C. E. Bosworth

    river of northern Khorasan, flowing first northwest, and then southwest into the Caspian Sea.

  • ĀΘRAVAN-

    M. Boyce

    (Avestan) “priest” regularly used to designate the priests as a social “class,” one of the three into which ancient Iranian society was theoretically divided.

  • ĀTRƎVAXŠ

    W. W. Malandra

    (Mid. Pers ādurwaxš), one of the eight Zoroastrian priests (ratu) necessary for performance of the yasna ritual.

  • ATROPATENE

    Cross-Reference

    See AZERBAIJAN.

  • ATROPATES

    M. L. CHAUMONT

    the satrap of Media, commander of the troops from Media, Albania, and Sacasene at the battle of Gaugamela in 331 B.C.

  • ATRUŠAN

    J. R. Russell

    the Armenian word for “fire temple,” a loan-word from Parthian.

  • ATSÏZ B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĀʾ-AL-DĪN ATSÏZ.

  • ATSÏZ ḠARČAʾĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    ruler of Ḵᵛārazm with the traditional title Ḵᵛārazmšāh, 521 or 522/1127 or 1128 to 551/1156.

  • ATTABI

    E. Sims

    one of many names for cloth used by medieval Islamic writers.

  • AṬṬĀR, FARĪD-AL-DĪN

    B. Reinert

    Persian poet, Sufi, theoretician of mysticism, and hagiographer, born ca. 540/1145-46 at Nīšāpūr, and died there in 618/1221.

  • ʿAṬṬĀŠ

    J. van Ess

    Ismaʿili leader during the time of Sultan Barkīāroq (Berk-yaruq, d. 498/1104).

  • ATTAŠAMA

    M. Mayrhofer

    personal name in the Nuzi texts.

  • ĀTUR

    Cross-Reference

    "fire." See ĀDUR and ĀTAŠ.

  • AΘURĀ

    Cross-Reference

    Achaemenid province. See ASSYRIA.

  • ĀΘVIYA

    cross-reference

    in the Avestan Hōm Yast (Y. 9.7) the second mortal to press the haoma and the father of Θraētaona (Ferīdūn).

  • AUBERGINE

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀDENJĀN.

  • AUDH

    Cross-Reference

    See AVADH.

  • AUGUSTINE

    G. Widengren

    prominent Christian theologian and philosopher, born 354 in Thagaste, Numidia.

  • AURELIUS VICTOR

    M. L. Chaumont

    born in Africa ca. 325/330, held high positions under Julian and Theodosius.

  • AUSTRIA i. Relations with Persia

    Helmut Slaby

    Diplomatic and commercial relations between Austria and Persia have a long history, stretching back to the sixteenth century.

  • AUSTRIA ii. IRANIAN STUDIES

    X. Tremblay and N. Rastegar

    The present entry is intended as a synthetic history of the organization of Iranian studies (1) up to 1918 in all the Habsburg “hereditary countries,” which included the present Czech Republic and Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, also parts of Poland, Romania, and Ukraine, and (2) since 1918 in the Republic of Austria exclusively.

  • AUTIYĀRA

    R. Schmitt

    name of a district of the satrapy Armina of the Achaemenid empire.

  • AUTOPHRADATES

    M. A. Dandamayev

    name of several Achaemenid officials, especially the satrap of Lydia under the  Artaxerxes II, from 391 B.C. until the late 350s.

  • AVA

    C. E. Bosworth

    the basic modern form of the name of two small towns of northern Persia, normally written Āba in medieval Islamic sources.

  • AVADĀNA

    R. E. Emmerick

    Sanskrit term for a category of Buddhist narrative literature.

  • AVADH

    R. B. Barnett

    an ancient cultural and administrative region lying between the Himalayas and the Ganges in North India, named after Ayodhyā, the setting of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana.

  • AVALOKITEŚVARA-DHĀRAṆĪ

    R. E. Emmerick

    name given by H. W. Bailey to a Buddhist text written in archaizing Late Khotanese, ending with a dhāraṇī (Skt. “spell, sacred formula”) preceded by homage to the bodhisattvas.

  • AVARAYR

    R. Hewsen

    a village in Armenia in the principality of Artaz southeast of the Iranian town of Mākū.

  • ĀVĀZ

    G. Tsuge

    Āvāz as a musical term has three basic meanings: (1) The classical vocal style of Iran, which is based on the elaborate modal system called dastgāh and sung mainly to classical Persian verses. (2) “Tune.” This term is used to denote an auxiliary mode in the dastgāh system.

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  • AVERY, PETER

    David Blow

    The most important part of Avery’s published works consists of translations of Persian poetry, in particular the ghazals (ḡazal) of Hafez, the Persian poet for whom he felt a special empathy. He began translating some of the ghazals while still a student at SOAS.

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  • AVESTA

    J. Kellens

    the holy book of the Zoroastrians.

  • AVESTAN GEOGRAPHY

    G. Gnoli

    Geographical references in the Avesta are limited to the regions on the eastern Iranian plateau and on the Indo-Iranian border.

  • AVESTAN LANGUAGE I-III

    K. Hoffmann

    The Avestan script is based on the Pahlavi script in its cursive form as used by theologians of the Zoroastrian church when writing their books. The earliest Pahlavi manuscripts date from the fourteenth century A.D., but the Pahlavi cursive script must have developed from the Aramaic script already in the first centuries A.D.

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  • AVESTAN LANGUAGE iv. AVESTAN SYNTAX

    Jean Kellens

    The only complete syntax of Avestan which is still usable today is H. Reichelt’sAwestisches Elementarbuch.

  • AVESTAN PEOPLE

    M. Boyce

    The term Avestan people is used here to include both Zoroaster’s own tribe, with that of his patron, Kavi Vištāspa, and those peoples settled in Eastern Iran.

  • AVIATION

    Abbas Atrvash

    Originally the Iranian government had approached the U.S. administration to negotiate the purchase of American military aircrafts and to organize the training of pilots and technicians. But the Americans rejected the request, arguing that such an agreement would violate the disarmement clauses of the post-World War I peace treaties.

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  • AVICENNA

    Multiple Authors

    celebrated philosopher and physician philosopher (d. 1037).

  • AVICENNA i. Introductory note

    M. Mahdi

    philosopher who began a movement away from explicitness about the central question of the relation between philosophy and religion.

  • AVICENNA ii. Biography

    D. Gutas

    philosopher whose biography presents the paradox that although more material is available for its study than is average for a Muslim scholar of his caliber, it has received little critical attention.

  • AVICENNA iii. Logic

    Sh. B. Abed

    philosopher whose works on logic are extant, and most of them have been published. With the exception of two Persian works, Dāneš-nāma-ye ʿalāʾī and Andar dāneš-e rag, all of his works are written in Arabic.

  • AVICENNA iv. Metaphysics

    M. E. Marmura

    a philosopher whose metaphysical system is one of the most comprehensive and detailed in the history of philosophy.

  • AVICENNA v. Mysticism

    D. Gutas

    a philosopher whose philosophical system, rooted in the Aristotelian tradition, is thoroughly rationalistic and intrinsically alien to the principles of Sufism as it had developed until his time.

  • AVICENNA vi. Psychology

    F. Rahman

    a psychology or doctrine of the soul that has an Aristotelian base with a strong Neoplatonic superstructure.

  • AVICENNA vii. Practical Sciences

    M. Mahdi

    an account of practical science that is laconic and dispersed in minor tracts and in the opening and closing passages of his comprehensive encyclopedic works.

  • AVICENNA viii. Mathematics and Physical Sciences

    G. Saliba

    referred to, in his encyclopedic work the Šefāʾ, as the mathematical sciences; includes both mathematics and astronomy.

  • AVICENNA ix. Music

    O. Wright

    from the discussion in his Ketāb al-najāt, Dāneš-nāma-ye ʿalāʾī, and Ketāb al-Šefāʾ. He considers music one of the mathematical sciences (the medieval quadrivium).

  • AVICENNA x. Medicine and Biology

    B. Musallam

    Nowhere in medieval thought was the contest between Galen and Aristotle as dramatic as in the works of Avicenna, where the two great traditions intersected. Avicenna wrote the medieval textbook of Galenic medicine the Qānūn (the Canon), as well as the central medieval statement of Aristotelian biology (the Ḥayawān, the biological section of the Šefāʾ).

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  • AVICENNA xi. Persian Works

    M. Achena

    only two works in Persian have come down to us: a short book Andar dāneš-e rag (On the science of the pulse), and a treatise on philosophy.

  • AVICENNA xii. The impact of Avicenna’s philosophical works on the West

    S. Van Riet

    Western European acquaintance with Avicenna began when Latin versions of some of his Arabic works came out in the mid-12th to late 13th centuries.

  • AVICENNA xiii. The influence of Avicenna on medical studies in the West

    U. Weisser

    From the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth century Avicenna held a high place in Western European medical studies.

  • ĀVĪŠAN

    R. A. Parsa

    wild thyme. Varieties in Iran are carminative, stomachic, diuretic, digestive, and flatulent. They may be used for liver and respiratory disorders.

  • AVROMAN

    D. N. MacKenzie

    a mountainous region on the western frontier of Persian Kurdistan.

  • AVROMAN DOCUMENTS

    D. N. MacKenzie

    three parchments found in a cave in the Kūh-e Sālān.

  • AVROMANI

    D. N. MacKenzie

    the dialect of Avroman, properly Hawrāmi, the most archaic of the Gōrāni group.

  • AWĀʾEL AL-MAQĀLĀT

    M. J. McDermott

    a Shiʿite doctrinal work written in Baghdad.

  • AWAN

    M. W. Stolper

    name of a place in ancient western Iran, the nominal dynastic seat of Elamite rulers in the late third millennium B.C.

  • ʿAWĀREF AL-MAʿĀREF

    W. C. Chittick

    a classic work on Sufism by Šehāb-al-dīn Sohravardī (1145-1234)

  • ʿAWĀREŻ

    W. Floor

    term used since 4th/10th century to denote extraordinary imposts of various kinds, the nature of which differed per area and historic period.

  • ʿAWFĪ, SADĪD-AL-DĪN

    J. Matīnī

    an important Persian writer of the late 6th/12th and early 7th/13th centuries.

  • AWḤAD-AL-DĪN KERMĀNĪ

    Z. Safa

    a famous mystic of the 6th/12th century.

  • AWḤADĪ MARĀḠAʾĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (born ca. 673/1274-75 in Marāḡa and died there in 738/1338), a poet who flourished in the reign of Abū Saʿīd Bahādor Khan (r. 716/1316-736/1335).

  • AWLĪĀʾ

    H. Algar

    a term commonly translated in European languages as “saints” or the equivalent.

  • AWLĪĀʾALLĀH ĀMOLĪ

    W. Madelung

    the author of the history of Rūyān, Tārīḵ-e Rūyān, written about 760/1359.

  • AWQĀF

    Cross-Reference

    See WAQF (pending).

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-ḤAYY AWRANGĀBĀDĪ.

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ AWRANGĀBĀDĪ.

  • AWRANGĀBĀDĪ, SHAH NEẒĀM-AL-DĪN

    M. L. Siddiqui

    the celebrated Češtī saint said to be a descendant of Abū Bakr, the first caliph, in the line of Šehāb-al-dīn Sohravardī.

  • AWRANGZĒB

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • AWRŌMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    or AWRŌMĀNI, See AVROMAN; AVROMANI.

  • AWṢĀF AL-AŠRĀF

    G. M. Wickens

    a short mystical-ethical work in Persian by Naṣīr-al-dīn Ṭūsī, written late in life, ca. 670/1271-72.

  • AWTĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ABDĀL; AWLĪĀʾ.

  • AXSE

    M. L. Chaumont

    name of a Parthian hostage in Rome, inscribed in the dedication of an epitaph engraved on a marble plaque and discovered at the Forum Boarium in Rome.

  • ĀXŠTI

    B. Schlerath

    (Avestan) “Peace, contract of peace.”

  • AXT

    M. F. Kanga

    a sorcerer and, according to Zoroastrian tradition, a vehement, early opponent of the Religion.

  • AXTAR

    W. Eilers

    (Middle and New Persian) “star” or “constellation.”

  • AXTARMĀR

    A. Tafażżolī

    “astronomer.” The astronomers were included in the category of the third of the four Sasanian social classes, i.e., the class of the scribes, together with the physicians and poets.

  • ĀXWARR

    W. Eilers

    Middle Persian term for “manger” or “stall” borrowed into Armenian as axoṙ.

  • ĀXWARRBED

    A. Tafażżolī

    Middle Iranian term for the “Stablemaster, Royal Equerry.”

  • ĀY ḴĀNOM

    O. Bernard

    or AÏ KHANUM (Tepe), a local Uzbek name designating the site of an important Greek colonial city in northern Afghanistan excavated since 1965 by a French mission and which belonged to a powerful hellenistic state born of Alexander’s conquest in Central Asia (329-27 B.C.)

  • AY TĪMŪR

    J. M. Smith, Jr.

    Sarbadār commander and ruler, “the son of a slave”.

  • ĀYADANA

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    “place of cult.” The term occurs once in the Old Persian Bīstūn inscription of Darius I.

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī JĀMĀSPĪG

    M. Boyce

    “Memorial of Jāmāsp,” a short but important Zoroastrian work in Middle Persian, also known as the Jāmāspī and Jāmāsp-nāma.

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī WUZURGMIHR

    S. Shaked

    a popular-religious andarz composition in Pahlavi, attributed to one of the best-known sages of the Sasanian period, Wuzurgmihr (Bozorgmehr) ī Buxtagān, who was active at the court of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān (531-79 A.D.).

  • AYĀDGĀR Ī ZARĒRĀN

    M. Boyce

    “Memorial of Zarēr,” a short Pahlavi text which is the only surviving specimen in that language of ancient Iranian epic poetry.

  • AYĀDĪ-E AMR ALLĀH

    D. M. MacEoin

    “Hands of the Cause of God”, term used in Bahaʾism to designate the highest rank of the appointed religious hierarchy.

  • AʿYĀN AL-ŠĪʿA

    W. Ende

    a monumental dictionary (56 vols. altogether) of Shiʿite celebrities and learned men compiled by the Shiʿite scholar Sayyed Moḥsen Amīn ʿĀmelī (d. 1952).

  • ĀYANDA

    Ī. Afšār

    Persian journal which began publication in Tīr, 1304 Š./June-July, 1925, under the editorship of its founder, Maḥmūd Afšār (1893-1983).

  • ĀYANDAGĀN

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton and P. Mohajer

    a daily morning newspaper that first appeared in Tehran on 16 December, 1967.

  • ĀYATALLĀH

    H. Algar

    (Sign of God; Engl. Ayatullah, Ayatollah), an honorific title awarded by popular usage to mojtaheds, particularly the foremost among them.

  • ĀYATĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    Ī. Afšār

    (b. 1288/1871; d. 1332 Š./1953), son of Mollā Moḥammad-Taqī Āḵūnd Taftī, Bahāʾi missionary, journalist, author, and teacher.

  • AYĀZ, ABU’L-NAJM

    J. Matīnī

    favorite Turkish slave of the Ghaznavid Sultan Maḥmūd, whose passion for Ayāz is a recurrent theme in Persian poetry, where he is also called Ayās or Āyāz.

  • AYBAK

    L. Dupree

    (Uzbek “cave dweller”), now called Samangān, capital of Samangān province, associated with several important archeological sites.

  • AYBAK, QOṬB-AL-DĪN

    N. H. Zaidi

     founder of the Moʿezzī or Slave Dynasty and the first Muslim king of India, also called Ībak (moon chieftain) and Aybak Šel.

  • ĀYENAHĀ-YE DARDĀR

    Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami

    (Mirrors with cover doors, Tehran, 1992), one of the last major works by Hushang Golshiri.

  • AYMĀQ

    A. Janata

    (Turk. Oymaq), a term designating tribal peoples in Khorasan and Afghanistan, mostly semi-nomadic or semi-sedentary, in contrast to the fully sedentary, non-tribal population of the area.

  • ʿAYN-AL-DAWLA, ʿABD-AL-MAJĪD

    J. Calmard

    ATĀBAK-E AʿẒAM (1845-1926) son of Solṭān Aḥmad Mīrzā ʿAżod-al-dawla, Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah’s forty-eighth son and a prominent political figure of Moẓaffar-al-dīn Shah’s reign (1896-1907).

  • ʿAYN-AL-QOŻĀT HAMADĀNĪ

    G. Böwering

    (492/1098-526/1131), brilliant mystic philosopher and Sufi martyr.

  • AYNALLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (or ĪNALLŪ, ĪNĀLŪ, ĪMĀNLŪ), a tribe of Ḡozz Turkic origin inhabiting Azerbaijan, central Iran and Fārs.

  • ʿAYNI, KAMĀL

    Habib Borjian

    As a textual and literary critic, Kamāl ʿAyni centered his work on Persian works of the Timurid era and contiguous periods, mainly the 15th and 16th centuries. He thus published a number of essays and monographs, such as Badr-al-Din Helāli’s Layli o Majnun (1954), ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmi’s Salāmān o Absāl (1964), and Moḵtār Ḡaznavi’s Šahriār-nāma (1964).

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  • ʿAYNĪ, ṢADR-AL-DĪN

    K. Hitchins

    (1878-1954), poet, novelist, and the leading figure of Soviet Tajik literature, born 18 Rabīʿ II 1295/15 April 1878 in the village of Sāktarī in the emirate of Bukhara, a Russian protectorate.

  • AYŌKĒN

    M. Shaki

    a Middle Persian legal term denoting the category of persons to whom descends the obligation of stūrīh (marriage by proxy or substitution).

  • AYRARAT

    R. H. Hewsen

    region of central Armenia in the broad plain of the upper Araxes.

  • ĀYRĪMLŪ

    P. Oberling

    (in Persian often Āyromlū), Turkic tribe of western Azerbaijan.

  • ĀYROM, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN KHAN

    M. Amanat

    army commander and the head of the police under Reżā Shah (r. 1304-20 Š./1925-41).

  • AYVĀN

    O. Grabar

    (palace, veranda, balcony, portico), a Persian word used also in Arabic (īwān, līwān) and Turkish.

  • AYVĀN-E KESRĀ

    E. J. Keall

    Ayvān-e Kesrā has been described in Arabic and Persian sources and is the subject of a moving qaṣīda by the poet Ḵāqānī who visited its ruins in mid-6th/12th century. Once the most famous of all Sasanian monuments and a landmark in the history of architecture, it is now only an imposing brick ruin.

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  • ʿAYYĀR

    Cl. Cahen, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    a noun meaning literally “vagabond,” applied to members of medieval fotowwa (fotūwa) brotherhoods and comparable popular organizations.

  • ʿAYYĀŠĪ, ABU’L-NAŻR MOḤAMMAD

    I. K. Poonawala

    Imami jurist and scholar of the 3rd-4th/9th-10th centuries.

  • AYYOHAʾL-WALAD

    I. Abbas

    a short treatise by Abū Ḥāmed Moḥammad Ḡazālī Ṭūsī (fl. 450-505/1058-1111), originally composed in Persian.

  • AYYŪB KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    Cross-Reference

    B. AMĪR ŠĒR ʿALĪ KHAN. See MOḤAMMAD AYYŪB KHAN.

  • AYYUBIDS

    R. S. Humphreys

    (Ar. Banū Ayyūb), a Kurdish family who first became prominent as members of the Zangid military establishment in Syria in the mid-sixth/twelfth century.

  • ʿAYYŪQĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a poet of the fifth/eleventh century who versified the romance of Varqa o Golšāh.

  • ĀZ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Iranian demon known from Zoroastrian, Zurvanite, and, especially, Manichean sources.

  • ĀZĀD

    M. Bazin

    Zelkova crenata or Siberian elm, a tree of the Ulmaceae family, for which also other scientific names, such as Zelkova carpinifolia, Zelkova hyrcana, Planera crenata, and Planera Richardi, have been proposed.

  • ĀZĀD (Iranian Nobility)

    M. L. Chaumont, C. Toumanoff

    (older ĀZĀT), a class of the Iranian nobility.

  • ĀZĀD BELGRĀMĪ

    M. Siddiqi

    Major Indo-Muslim poet, biographer, and composer of chronograms, also known as Ḥassān-al-Hend (fl. 1116-1200/1704-86).

  • ĀZĀD FĪRŪZ

    A. Tafażżolī

    governor of Bahrain and the surrounding area in the time of Ḵosrow (probably Ḵosrow II Parvēz).

  • ĀZĀD KHAN AFḠĀN

    J. R. Perry

    (d. 1781), a major contender for supremacy in western Iran after the death of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47).

  • ĀZĀD TABRIZI

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    physician, anthologist, and translator (b. Tehran, ca. 1854; d. Paris, 1936).

  • ĀZĀD, ʿABD-AL-QADIR

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    ABD-AL-QADIR AZAD published a newspaper, which he named Āzād (liberal, free), in Mašhad. In the editorials of this newspaper he attacked the government, and criticized the authorities severely. His paper was eventually banned by the newly-formed government of Reżā Shah Pahlavi, and ʿAbd-al-Qadir, who had by now assumed the name “Āzād” after his newspaper, was himself imprisoned.

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  • ĀZĀD, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN

    K. N. Pandita

    Scholar and writer in Urdu and Persian, born about 1834 in Delhi.

  • ĀZĀDA

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    name of a Roman slave-girl of Bahrām Gōr.

  • AZADARAN-E BAYAL

    MAHYAR ENTEZARI

    (ʿAzādārān-e Bayal; The mourners of Bayal, Tehran, 1964). The collection comprises eight interconnected stories, called Qeṣṣa. Sharing characters and not unlike a novel, they revolve around the inescapable horrors of death, disease, drought, and famine in a fictitious village named Bayal.

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  • ʿAZĀDĀRĪ

    J. Calmard

    to hold a commemoration of the dead, by extension, mourning, a word deriving from Arabic ʿazāʾ, which means commemorating the dead.

  • ĀZĀḎBEH B. BĀNEGĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a dehqān (landowner) of Hamadān, marzbān (governor) in the former Lakhmid capital of Ḥīra in central Iraq during the years preceding the Arab conquest of that province.

  • ĀZĀDĪ

    N. Parvīn

    (Freedom), the name of the several Persian journals.

  • ĀZĀDĪSTĀN

    N. Parvīn

    the title of a Persian educational magazine which came out at Tabrīz in Jawzā, 1299/June-August, 1920.

  • ĀZĀDSARV

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    Two bearers of this name are known.

  • ĀZĀDVĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    (or Āzaḏvār), a small town of Khorasan in the district (kūra, rostāq) of Jovayn, which flourished in medieval Islamic times, apparently down to the Il-khanid period.

  • AŻĀʿELḴᵛĀNĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See MANĀQEB ḴᵛĀNĪ.

  • AZAL

    J. van Ess

    Arabic theological term derived from Pahlavi a-sar “without head” and meaning, already in early Muʿtazilite kalām, “eternity a parte ante,” as opposite to abad, “eternity a parte post.”

  • AZALI BABISM

    D. M. MacEoin

    designation of a religious faction which takes its name from Mīrzā Yaḥyā Nūrī Ṣobḥ-e Azal (about 1246-1330/1830-1912), considered by his followers to have been the legitimate successor to the Bāb.

  • AʿẒAM KHAN

    ʿA. Ḥabībī

    the fifth son of Amir Dōst Moḥammad Khan and the third amir of the Moḥammadzay line, ruler of Afghanistan in 1284/1867-1285/1868.

  • ĀŽANG

    N. Parvīn

    (Wrinkle), a Persian newspaper which commenced publication in Esfand, 1332 Š./February, 1954, and lasted until 1353 Š./1974.

  • ĀZAR

    Cross-Reference

    father of Abraham. See EBRĀHĪM.

  • ĀẔAR BĪGDELĪ

    J. Matīnī

    (ĀḎAR BĪGDELĪ), poet and author of a taḏkera (biographical anthology) of about 850 Persian poets, complied in 1174/1760.

  • ĀẔAR KAYVĀN

    H. Corbin

    (ĀḎAR KAYVĀN;  d. between 1609 and 1618), a Zoroastrian high priest and native of Fārs who emigrated to India and became the founder of the Zoroastrian Ešrāqī or Illuminative School.

  • ĀẔAR ḴORDĀD

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR FARNBAG.

  • AẔAR “fire”

    cross-reference

    See ĀDUR.

  • ĀẔARBĀDAGĀN

    cross-reference

    See AZERBAIJAN.

  • ĀẔARBĀY(E)JĀN

    cross-reference

    See AZERBAIJAN.

  • ĀẔARBĀYJĀN JOURNAL

    N. Parvīn

    (ĀḎARBĀY[E]JĀN), the title of a satirical-political journal published at Tabrīz in 1907.

  • ĀẔARĪ language

    cross-reference

    the ancient language of Azerbaijan. See AZERBAIJAN vii.

  • ĀẔARĪ ṬŪSĪ

    A. ʿA. Rajāʾī

    (ĀḎARĪ ṬŪSĪ), NŪR-AL-DĪN (or FAḴR-AL-DĪN) ḤAMZA B. ʿALĪ MALEK ESFARĀYENĪ BAYHAQĪ, Shiʿite Sufi poet (fl. 1382-1462).

  • ĀZARMĪGDUXT

    Ph. Gignoux

    Sasanian queen who according to Ṭabarī ruled for a few months in 630.

  • ĀẔARŠAHR

    ʿA. ʿA. Kārang

    (or DEHḴᵛĀRAQĀN; in the local Azeri Turkish: Toḵargān), a town and a district (baḵš) of the šahrestān of Tabrīz.

  • AŽDAHĀ

    P. O. Skjærvø, Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh, J. R. Russell

    “dragon,” various kinds of snake-like, mostly gigantic, monsters living in the air, on earth, or in the sea (also designated by other terms) sometimes connected with natural phenomena, especially rain and eclipses.

  • AZDĀKARA

    M. Dandamayev

    (from Old Persian azdā- “announcement” and kara- “maker”), officials of the Achaemenid chancery, the heralds, who made known, for example, the government edicts, court sentences.

  • AZDI, ʿABD-AL-JABBĀR

    G. R. Hawting

    b. ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān, a governor of Khorasan who came into conflict with the caliph al-Manṣur, executed, probably in 142/759-60.

  • AZDĪ, MOḤAMMAD

    G. R. Hawting

    B. RAWWĀD, a notable of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 3rd/9th century, known mainly in connection with the revolt of Bābak, the leader of the Ḵorrami movement.

  • AZERBAIJAN

    Multiple Authors

    (Āḏarbāy[e]jān), historical region of northwestern Iran, east of Lake Urmia, since the Achaemenid era.

  • AZERBAIJAN i. Geography

    X. de Planhol

    characterized by volcanic constructions—along the “volcanic cicatrix” that follows the internal ridge of the Zagros and marks its contact with the central Iranian plateau. 

  • AZERBAIJAN ii. Archeology

    W. Kleiss

    comprises the two Iranian provinces of West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan, with administrative centers at Urmia (before 1979 Reżāʾīya) and Tabrīz respectively; it does not include “Northern Azerbaijan,” centered on Baku, which since 1829 has belonged to the Russian empire.

  • AZERBAIJAN iii. Pre-Islamic History

    K. Schippmann

    the northwestern province of Azerbaijan can look back on a long history. For the earliest periods, however, archeological research has barely begun.

  • AZERBAIJAN iv. Islamic History to 1941

    C. E. Bosworth

    Background. Azerbaijan formed a separate province of the early Islamic caliphate, but its precise borders varied in different periods.

  • AZERBAIJAN v. History from 1941 to 1947

    B. Kuniholm

    Upon entering Iran, the Soviets dismantled frontier and customs posts between Iran and the USSR, and set up military posts on the southern border of the Soviet occupied zone. The de facto result was extension of the Soviet frontier into Iran.

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  • AZERBAIJAN vi. Population and its Occupations and Culture

    R. Tapper

    tribalism is no longer of great social relevance for most Azerbaijanis, but most have a recent history of tribal allegiances, whether Turkish or Kurdish.

  • AZERBAIJAN vii. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan

    E. Yarshater

    Āḏarī (Ar. al-āḏarīya) was the Iranian language of Azerbaijan before the spread of the Turkish language, commonly called Azeri, in the region.

  • AZERBAIJAN viii. Azeri Turkish

    G. Doerfer

    Oghuz languages were earlier grouped into Turkish (of Turkey), Azeri, and Turkmen, but recent research has modified this simple picture.

  • AZERBAIJAN ix. Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish

    L. Johanson

    perhaps after Uzbek, the Turkic language upon which Iranian has exerted the strongest impact—mainly in phonology, syntax and vocabulary, less in morphology.

  • AZERBAIJAN x. Azeri Turkish Literature

    H. Javadi and K. Burrill

    Due to bilingualism among the educated Turkic-speaking people of the area the use of Azeri prose was widespread until the reign of Reżā Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925-41).

  • AZERBAIJAN xi. Music of Azerbaijan

    J. During

    The musical traditions of Azerbaijan were already distinct from those of the area now known as Soviet Azerbaijan, but they became definitively separated toward the end of the 19th century, with Iranian Azerbaijan opting for the purely Iranian style. Subsequently the music of the Soviet Azerbaijan underwent a period of Western acculturation.

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  • AZERBAIJAN xii. MONUMENTS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The Iranian provinces of Azerbaijan, both West and East, possess a large number of monuments from all periods of history.

  • AZES

    D. W. Mac Dowell

    the name of two Indo-Scythian kings of the major dynasty ruling an empire based on the Punjab and Indus valley from about 50 B.C. to A.D. 30.

  • AẒFARĪ GŪRGĀNĪ

    M. Baqir

    18th-century Indo-Persian poet and lexicographer.

  • AZHAR-E ḴAR

    L. P. Smirnova

    “Azhar the ass,” nickname of AZHAR B. YAḤYĀ B. ZOHAYR B. FARQAD, third cousin, and military commander of the Saffarid amirs Yaʿqūb and ʿAmr b. Layṯ.

  • AŽI

    Cross-Reference

    (DAHĀKA). See AŽDAHĀ.

  • AZILISES

    D. W. MacDowall

    Indo-Scythian king of the dynasty of Azes in the Indus valley about the beginning of the Christian era.  

  • ʿAẒĪM NAVĀZ KHAN BAHĀDOR

    M. Baqir

    author of a Sunni account in Persian of the martyrdom of Imam Ḥosayn and superintendent of the compilation of a political and natural history of the Carnatic and of India in general. (fl. 1859).

  • ʿAẒĪMĀBĀD

    Q. Ahmad

    (Patna), ancient Pataliputra, present capital of Bihar state in northeast India.

  • ĀZĪN JOŠNAS

    A. Tafażżolī

    (ĀḎĪN JOŠNAS), a military commander of the Sasanian Hormazd IV (r. 579-90), killed in Hamadān on his way to fight the rebellious general Bahrām Čōbin.

  • ĀŽĪR

    N. Parvīn

    “Alarm bell,” a radical leftist Persian newspaper, printed at Tehran, May 1943 to June, 1945.

  • AZIŠMĀND

    M. Shaki

    “obstructed or hampered justice," one of the few Middle Persian exclusively legal terms.

  • ʿAZĪZ KHAN MOKRĪ

    J. Calmard

    SARDĀR-E KOLL (1792-1871), an army chief and dignitary of Qajar Iran.

  • ʿAZĪZ NASAFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See NASAFĪ, ʿAZĪZ.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-DĪN, MOSTAWFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ABŪ NAṢR MOSTAWFĪ.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-MOLK

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿALĪ EBRĀHĪM KHAN.

  • ʿAZĪZ-AL-SOLṬĀN

    A. Amanat

    (1879-1940), better known as Malījak(-e) Ṯānī [II], the boy favorite of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār. 

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA ŠĪRZĀD

    Cross-Reference

    See ŠĪRZĀD.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ ŠOJĀʾ FANNĀ ḴOSROW

    Ch. Bürgel and R. Mottahedeh

    (936-83), the greatest Buyid monarch and the most powerful ruler in the Islamic East in the last years of his life. 

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-DĪN ĪJĪ

    J. van Ess

    famous Shafeʿite jurist and Asḥʿarite theologian.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, ʿALĪ REŻĀ KHAN

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    during the Tobacco protest of 1891-92, ʿone of the chief mediators between the shah and the ʿolamāʾ of Tehran; regent of Iran in 1909-10.

  • ʿAŻOD-AL-MOLK, MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYN

    Ḥ. Maḥbūbī Ardakānī

    (d. 1867), a senior official in the first part of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qājār’s reign. 

  • AZRAQĪ HERAVĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh

    the pen-name of Abū Bakr b. Esmāʿīl Warrāq of Herat, a Persian poet of the 5th/11th century.

  • ĀZŪITI-

    M. Boyce

    an Avestan word meaning “oblation of fat,” also a divine being representing Fatness or Plenty.

  • ʿĀŠEQ JONUN

    music sample

  • As~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the As–Az entries